Saturday, August 31, 2019

Macro Environment Factors

Introduction The purpose of this report is to demonstrate an understanding of the marketing macro environment. The proposed research question was: Identify the macro environmental factors and discuss the impact this macro environmental factors will have on the industry or organizations involved.Firstly, this report will summaries the article, identify and explain the issues written in article. Followed is the definition and explain of macro environmental factors involved. Then the report topic will moving to the industry concerned and have a discussion of the impact that this macro environment factors will have on the industry. Finally there is a short conclusion highlighting the main points of this report. 2. 0 Summaries The article comes from DOWJONES mainly discussed some specialists’ standpoints of the change of Aussie dollar’s exchange rate and the reason of this fluctuate.In addition, this article analyzed the situation of those industries which can be affected by these economic environment factors. According to this article, tight monetary policy may be used causing by worldwide inflation. With the dropping and down of the interest rate, many industries may be effected directly, such as manufacturing industry, real estate industry and tourism industry. (Webb, Richard. 2011) The reason the article is being written is to show the change of the economic environment and give information to those people who want to understand the external marketing environment, such as marketers.Unless marketing managers understand the external environment, the organization cannot intelligently plan for the future. (Lamb,Charles et al. ,2009) For example, marketers come form real estate industry must scanning the macro-economic environment because macro-economic factors such as inflation, interest rates, and exchange rates impact on mortgage affordability and the real value of mortgage repayments over time. ( Boamah, Nicholas. Addai, 2010) 3. 0 Macro environment factorsThe external marketing environment consists of sociocultural, economic, technological, political and legal, and competitive variables. ( Lamb,Charles et al. ,2009) This article mainly discussed the situation of inflation, which is one of the economic environment factors. Inflation is a general rise in prices without a corresponding increase in wages, which results in decreased purchasing power. ( Lamb,Charles et al. ,2009) According to the article, there are diverse views on where the Aussie is heading, and this direction is critical for interest rates. In the worst case, Michael Workman predicted that later in the year where the local currency will be falling sharply at the same time the price of the manufactured goods we import by the container-shipload form China continues to rise. † (Webb, Richard. 2011) As mentioned, the manufacturing industry may face the raising price of those goods import form other countries because the falling of local currency. The second po int is Reserve Bank of Australia may increase interest rate to cut down the influence of inflation.That would take the home mortgage rates higher at the same time, which means people must pay more interests to the bank to get the loan. Then the real estate industry will be affected directly. Another industry will be influenced is tourism industry. With the higher currency price, people tend to go for an overseas holiday. The local tourism is being decimated. The tourism industry is also involved in the competitive environment. ( Webb, Richard. 2011) 4. 0 Industry involved In this article, three main industries are concerned: manufacturing industry, real estate industry and tourism industry. 5. 0 Impact of the factorsAs the discussion above in 3. 0, these industries are all affected by the inflation. In time of low inflation, business seeking to increase their profit margins can do so only by increase their efficiency. If they significantly increase price, no one will purchase their goods or services. In higher inflationary times, marketers use a number of pricing strategies to cope, and must be aware that inflation causes consumers either to build up or diminish their brand loyalty. Inflation pressures consumers to make more economical purchases, while still attempting to maintain their standard of living. (Lamb,Charles et al. 2009) From the article, the Australia local manufacturing industry was suffering as imports become extremely competitive and our exports more expensive. As same as the manufacturing industry, the local tourism industry also faced the international competitors. The original factor of this situation is the negative economic environment. Followed the inflation, the Reserve Bank of Australia tend to carry out the tight fiscal policy to control the economic environment. So numbers of experts indicated that interest rate would increase. With the increase of interest rate, the price of currency may tend to higher.High record of currency will le ad to different situation in different area. For customers, this will be a good chance to buy import goods and services. But for local industries, marketing managers must try to collect and evaluate environmental information and then creating marketing strategies to cope with inflation. (Lamb,Charles et al. ,2009) 6. 0 Conclusion The mainly factor of these three industries is economic environment; other factors also play a significant role in these industries, such as political and legal environment and competitive environment. These factors affect marketing together.Reference list Boamah, Nicholas. Addai. (2010). The impact of the macro-economic environment on institutional housing finance in Ghana. Housing finance international, Vol. 25, Issue 2, p28-34. Lamb,Charles. ,W. ,Hair,Joseph. ,F. ,McDaniel,Carl. ,Summers,Jane. ,Gardiner,Michael. (2009). MKTG(1ST Asia-Pacific edition). South Melbourne, Australia: Paul Petrulis. Webb, Richard. (2011, March 27. ) Trading with fire: Sunday a ge.

Friday, August 30, 2019

Everything’s Arranged

The short story ‘Everything’s Arranged’ by Siew Yue Killingley is about a Ceylonese girl named Rukumani that having a secret affair with a Ceylonese boy named Devanayagam while studying at University. Both of them love each other deeply. As they went for longs term vacation, their secret affair discovered by their parents. The story tells about how these young couple, especially Rukumani has struggled and suffered because of their family members, relatives and their community as they try to get together in life. Her marriage was arranged against her own wish.The main characters in this story are Rukumani and Devanayagam. Meanwhile, the other characters are Johnny Chew, Amy Wong, Mr. Sambanthan, Susheela, Nadarajah, Rukumani’s mother and grandmother, Devanayagam’s father and Auntie Sally. As from the story, the setting of the story might be around early stage after our country’s independence. During that time, love marriages are still alien to Indian cultural. The typical India Community thought fall in love as a big sin and only arranged marriage is allowed. The conflict of the story is about the rejection of love marriages by old generation.The story reveals the conflict faced by the two lovers, Rukumani and Devanayagam, who are secretly in love. Their parents, who do not know about their love story, have arranged a marriage for them, and the problem comes when both of them have to marry to another persons. The first theory that can be related to the story is Feminism Theory, which can be defined as a â€Å"recognition and critique of male supremacy combined with efforts to change it. † Feminist Theory is an outgrowth of the general movement to empower women worldwide, and it involves every sense, including belief in the social, political, and economic equality of the sexes.According to the theory, feminists fight for the equality of women and argue that women should share equally in society’s opportunitie s and scare resources. They try to fight for women’s right to be equally and fairly treated in the society, regardless of their gender. There are three ultimate goals of feminism, which include demonstrating the importance of women, revealing that historically women have been subordinate to men, as well as bringing about gender equity. ‘Feminist Theory’ is an umbrella term for Liberal Feminism, Radical Feminism, Socialist Feminism, and also Marxist Feminism.Radical Feminism According to Radical Feminism, male power and privilege is the basis of social relations, and sexism is the ultimate tool used by men to keep women oppressed. As we can see in this story, Rukumani is not allowed to decline the marriage which is arranged by her parents as it is considered as rude. She does not even get the chance to make a decision for her own future. â€Å"The time for her marriage to be arranged would soon come†¦Ã¢â‚¬  Based on this line, we can deduce that sexism is t he ultimate tool used by men to keep women oppressed.Even at the beginning of the story, it is mentioned that Rukumani will soon get married to a guy who she does not know, and it is all arranged by her parents, without considering her feelings. Her father especially, has chosen someone who he thinks is the best for his daughter because of the cheap dowry his family willing to give. Even though Rukumani already has a guy who she loves, she knows that there will be a lot of obstacles that she has to go through for their love, and it might be impossible to continue the relationship because of the arranged marriage.Realizing it or not, Mr Sambanthan, Rukumani’s father, is the one who gives oppression to his own daughter. He thinks that it is his right to find someone to be his daughter’s husband. â€Å"†¦had proved a disgraceful and shameless hussy by rejecting a match with a promising lawyer who was willing to accept a cheap dowry because of her B. Sc†¦Ã¢â‚¬  Rukumani is accused as an ungrateful child after her parents find out about her Chinese friend, Jonny, whom they taught her boyfriend. In this situation, women’s oppression is the deepest as the woman in the story has no right to do the things she likes.On that day, Jonny, who is her classmate, came to her house in order to have a talk with her during the long term vacation. However, her little brother and her mother misunderstand about them, by claiming that Rukumani brings her Chinese boyfriend to their house. It is seen as a very shameful and immoral act, that her mother starts to think of what the society might think about their family. Plus, her mother tends to compare her with the neighbours by saying that their daughters have never brought a man into their houses. Rukumani is oppressed and she does not know what to do in order to set her free.Her parents think that the guy whom they want to take as their son in law as the most perfect match for their daughter without considering Rukumani’s feelings. â€Å"At the same time, they liked to pretend that Rukumani was too spiritual to know everything about sex†¦Ã¢â‚¬  According to this line, women’s oppression is the most widespread as their lives are arranged that they do not have the chance to plan their future by themselves. Men use sexism as their ultimate tool to keep women oppressed. In Rukumani’s family, everything has been planned by her father and no one is capable of objecting it. At times I think of committing suicide but I am not sure how to kill myself. † Referring to this line, we can conclude that women’s oppression causes the most suffering in their lives. In the letter she writes to Auntie Sally, Rukumani has mentioned that she somehow feels to commit suicide for the sadness and oppression she faces because of the arranged marriage. Marrying a guy who she does not even know is not her choice, and she is not willing to do that. At certain extent , she just feels like her life is reaching to an end, which she feels hopeless, hence thinking of committing suicide.However, she does not do that as she does not know the way. It clearly shows that the decision made by her father has caused her to suffer in her life; she does not have freedom to make a decision for her own life. Liberal Feminism Liberal Feminism is about freedom, which all people are created equal and should not be denied equality of opportunity because of gender. It highlights the efforts on social change through the construction of legislation and regulation of employment practices. However, in this short story, the bias towards men can be clearly seen. †¦he could go out to shows with his friends.† During the long vacation, Devanayagam can still hang out with his friends, but not for Rukumani. In their culture, women are not allowed to freely go out with their friends, and they are strictly controlled by their parents. It is not fair for Rukumani as sh e also has feelings and freedom to do the things she likes, just like men have. The freedom should be equally given to everyone, regardless of their gender. Just like men, women can as well manage their own lives independently and should not be restricted just because of one’s wish.Psychoanalysis According to Sigmund Freud there are parts that involve in humans’ lives, which are id, ego, and superego. Id allows humans to get their basic needs met. Freud believed that the id is based on pleasure principal. In other words, the id wants whatever feels good at the time, with no consideration for the reality of the situation. The id does not care about the needs of anyone else; it is only its own satisfaction. As in ego, which is the second part, the personality begins to develop after interacting more and more with the world.The ego, which is based on reality principle, understands that other people have needs and desires and that sometimes being impulsive or selfish can h urt us in the long run. It is the ego’s job to meet the needs of the id, while taking into consideration the reality of the situation. The ego acts a balancer or reminder, and it puts limitations to the id. It tells us whether our particular action is right or wrong. In this short story, Mr Sambanthan, who is Rukumani’s father, has a very strong id. He does not even care about others’ feelings whenever he wants to make a decision.He has been arranging Rukumani’s marriage without even discussing with her, as knows that he has power to anything he wants to. â€Å"The time for her marriage to be arranged would soon come and she would find out all about that after she was married. † This line clearly shows Rukumani will only know about her own marriage after she get married, and there is someone who is planning for her. With a very strong id, Mr Sambanthan wants the marriage to be successful without even realizing that he is actually being unfair to hi s daughter.He only takes his feelings into consideration, and neglects others’. As a good father, he should first discuss with her daughter, and think of her feelings, as this matter is related to his daughter’s future. Instead, he rules everything in the house and once blaming his wife for not teaching good morals to Rukumani. Because of this, Rukumani feels so sad and worried if she had to break up with his boyfriend and got married with a guy she does not love, or even knows. â€Å"At times I think of committing suicide but I am not sure how to kill myself. In the other hand, the ego makes Rukumani not to kill herself because of the problem.Rukumani once mentions in the letter she writes for Auntie Sally that she is thinking of committing suicide as a result of the pressure she feels. However, she does not do that thing as she is still able to think rationally. Nevertheless, Rukumani also has the strong id as she eventually tells her parents and the guys’ th at she has a boyfriend that she loves. The action is considered as rude, and it is the reason why the guy’s family rejects her, and do not want to proceed with the marriage.

Thursday, August 29, 2019

Sylvia Plath vs Ted Hughes

Sylvia Plath’s poem, ‘Whiteness I Remember’, and Ted Hughes’s poem, ‘Sam’, are two poems which describe an experience of Plath’s when she was a student at Cambridge. She was out on her first ride when the horse she had hired the normally-placid Sam, bolted. Although Ted Hughes’s is describing the experience he uses insinuations throughout the poem to let out his perception of his marriage with Sylvia Plath, hence infuriating, the conflict in perspective between the two poems. The ideas of ‘conflicting perspective’ suggest that the composers of the texts present an even-handed, unbiased attitude to the events, personalities or situations represented. Conflicting perspectives explore the subjective truth of the individual, which are shaped by the construction of a text by a biased composer. Each person’s version of the truth in events, personalities and situations differs, by viewing separate perspectives an understanding of the motives and purpose of the composer is formed. Sam’ is Hughes retrospective interpretation of an event in Plath’s life before she met him and which she had represented in the poem ‘Whiteness I remember’. Hughes’ poem itself contains what can be interpreted as conflicting perspectives of her personality and when read in conjunction with Whiteness I remember reveals interesting similarities and differences. Hughes seems to accept Plath’s account of the event ‘I can liv e Your incredulity, your certainty that this was it’ and he does adhere closely to her description of her experiences during the horse’s headlong flight to the stable. However, the repetition of ‘You lost your stirrups’, ‘You lost your reins, you lost your seat’, combine to depict Plath as a terrified victim unable to control or take responsibility for the consequences of her own actions. In contrast Plath’s poem suggests she was exhilarated by the speed and danger and identified with what she represents as the horses’ rebellion against the ‘humdrum’ of suburbia. In contrast Hughes accuses her of glamorising her loss of control. ‘It was grab his neck and adore him or free fall’. Once again the reader is arguably left with the impression that Hughes is still identifying with Sam and suggesting there are parallels between her relationship with him and the horse. As the stanza continues Hughes builds the momentum and pace with a series of commas as punctuation and an enjambment. The choice of verb in ‘You slewed under his neck, an upside down jockey with nothing between you and the cataract of macadam’ creates an image of Plath unable to maintain a balance and in imminent danger of being smashed into the road by the horses hooves at high speed. The alliteration and the metaphor of the ‘horribly hard swift river’ in full flood combine with the’ propeller terror of his front legs’ and the onomatopoeia of ‘clangour of the iron shoes’ to transform the horse into an engine of destruction.

Wednesday, August 28, 2019

Oil controling the world Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Oil controling the world - Essay Example Whether they can't, or they simply don't want to, remains a matter of speculation. (NICOLA, 2008) The battle for energy is shaping many conflicts of the present century, and those of future, but soaring oil prices not only have an impact on industrial production, but pose a greater threat to the end consumer and economy at large by have indirect effects on food prices, global industry, travel expenses, famine as more and more land is used to grow bio fuels and world food production is decreasing, the list can be endless. 'Unlike the previous oil shocks, which were more and less blamed on the imbalance between demand and supply, the current rise in oil prices is more complicated than just instability of demand and supply. So if one probes into the factors that have played a part in rising oil prices, one comes to a conclusion that there are a number of reasons ranging from a weak dollar to tensions between the U.S. and Iran. At the heart of the problem, though, is the fact that global demand is currently outstripping global supply. Countries such as China and India are thirsty for oil to fuel their economic growth, yet the world's oil-producing regions are producing less oil. In Nigeria, tensions in the Niger Delta region have curtailed production by nearly a million barrels a day. Fears of war between the U.S. and Iran, one of the world's biggest oil producers, have driven up prices further. And some of the world's major oil fields, the Cantarell Field in Mexico, for instance, are yielding disappoin ting amounts of crude oil this year, for geological, not geopolitical reasons.' (Weiner, 2007) HIGH OIL PRICES: THE WINNERS AND LOOSERS OF THE GAME In the political game revolving around the rise and fall of oil prices, there are some profit makers, while some are at the losing end. While it is obvious that the oil companies must be making huge profits, owing the fueling demand and high prices, it is the companies that specialize in withdrawing crude oil, who are the major profit holders. 'Exxon-Mobil, the world's largest publicly traded oil company, recently reported a profit of $9.4 billion. Impressive, more money than any publicly traded company has made in U.S. history.' (Weiner, 2007) 'The traditional big-oil producers, such as Saudi Arabia, Kuwait and other Persian Gulf nations, but also relative newcomers to the oil game, such as Kazakhstan and other nations that border the oil-rich Caspian Sea. Iran, Russia and Venezuela are also big winners. Higher oil prices might embolden leaders of those nations to play a more assertive role on the world stage and, in the case of Iran, deflect international pressure to dismantle its nuclear program.' (Weiner, 2007) 'At the losing end is any nation that is a net importer of oil, such as the U.S. and most European nations. The European pain, however, is blunted by the strong Euro and Europe's fuel-efficient transport systems. China is another loser. It's appetite for oil is seemingly insatiable, and it's already paying more for that addiction. India is potentially even more vulnerable: It uses less oil than China but imports 70 percent of it, compared with 50 percent for China.' (Weiner, 2007) ECONOMIC COSTS OF HIGH PRICES Recently, oil prices have leaped over $135 per barrel over night,

Tuesday, August 27, 2019

Psychological Disorders Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Psychological Disorders - Essay Example Psychological disorders are known to be harmful, and dysfuntional when they are labeled to be behaviors such as, atypical, disturbing, maladaptive, and unjustifiable (Myers 2006, pg.522). Although there is medical treatment available for many of these psychological problems, the reaction to the treatment varies from person to person. In that regard it can not be wholly stated that these diseases, in themselves (such as major depression), can be effectively treated by prescribed drugs at all times. When a specialist makes a claim that such a disorder is not a psychological problem, it creates an adversity on those who struggle with the illness themselves and, it makes many feel as if they are being compromised when trying to stress how the disorder has impacted their lives to a medical practitioner or psychiatrist. However, it can be understood why a statement such as this would be made because it has taken the medical world nearly twenty years to realize that a major depressive disor der is a severe psychological problem. Beforehand, the attitude did exist that it wasn't that serious and that it could be medically treated in an efficient manner with prescribed drugs to alter the pattern of the illness (Field et al, 2000, pg.71).

Issues concerning the rights of minority members in Australia and the Essay

Issues concerning the rights of minority members in Australia and the manner in which shareholder rights may be protected - Essay Example Australia is a nation with strong legal system with a higher level of legal protection for shareholders and creditors2 compared to other nations (La Porta et al, 1998, 1999).In this essay, the various issues concerning the minority shareholder rights in Australia and the different ways by which the shareholder rights may be protected are discussed in detail. This is organized as follows. In the second section, the theoretical perspectives of corporate governance and the problems between directors and shareholders are discussed. In the third section, the directors and shareholders; rights and obligations are discussed. In the fourth section, various issues regarding the minority shareholder rights are discussed. In the fifth section, various remedies for protecting minority shareholder rights are discussed in detail. The fifth section concludes the essay. Starting from classical economists like Smith (1776), Berle, and Means (1932), many studies have been done on the conflicts of interests between the principal or investors and the agent or managers. The idea of separating the concepts of ownership and control has been developed based on these studies. The role of corporate governance comes in this context. According to Shleifer and Vishny (1997), corporate governance is given a broad definition.Corporate governance â€Å" deals with the ways in which suppliers of finance to corporations assure themselves of getting a return on their investment†. OECD(1999) defines corporate governance as â€Å"the system by which business corporations are directed and controlled. The corporate governance structure specifies the distribution of rights and responsibilities among different participants in the corporation, such as the board, managers, shareholders and other stakeholders, and spells out the rules and procedures for making decisions on corporate affairs. By doing this, it also provides the structure through which the company objectives are

Monday, August 26, 2019

Globalization and the gains from international trade Essay - 2

Globalization and the gains from international trade - Essay Example n controlling trade is still enormous and many governments are increasingly accepting it as the norm rather than the exception (Tung and Henry, 2009). Debates in recent times centre whether globalization is diminishing trade or increasing it. Questions have been raised on the state the traditional roles and national governments sovereignty play over trade, and the effects that these portend in promoting fairness or inequality among countries. Others have zeroed on the balance of trade and trade payments the less developed countries, the developing countries vis-Ã  -vis the developed world, and the focus on the glaring policy intervention differences between the global north and the global south. This paper states at the outset that: Whereas globalization has been touching on every aspect of society today, scholars and thinkers alike have not agreed on a universal single definition of the term. Instead, a number of definitions, conceptualizations, and perspectives exist depending on which lens one views the concept. In Kemp’s world, the gains must be examined within the confluence of world tarries such that no country in the pedestal of globalization would be worse off than in the smaller customs union (Kemp, 1987). Kemp (1987) observes that the phenomenon of globalization has been extensively used in the world, specifically in admired discourses and policy issues. For him, globalization is a term that describes ways in which the world is progressively more interrelated, organized, and interdependent through a set of socially reinforced processes that is controlled by customs. These processes include among others, integration of markets, nation states and technologies to a scale that is aiding individuals, corporations and distinct governments to access and ‘navigate’ the world much more, more rapidly, much deeper an by less costly methods (Kemp and Wong, 1995). Kemp further characterizes the global economy and trade as that which is based on spread and

Sunday, August 25, 2019

Summary of what is the right supply chain for your product Essay

Summary of what is the right supply chain for your product - Essay Example For Innovative products, many companies introduce innovation to give customers an added reason to purchase their products. Innovative products give a company higher profit margins, but their demand is very unpredictable, their life cycle is short. Because of their high-profit margins and unstable demand, innovative products necessitate a special supply chain than functional products. Supply chain has two different functions: these include physical and the market mediation function (Fisher, 112). The supply chain physical function includes converting raw materials into parts, components, and transferring all of them from one position in the supply chain to the next position. Market mediation ensures that the variety of products reaching the market matches what the consumers want to buy. The predictable demand of functional demand products makes market mediation simple because it nearly achieves a perfect match between supply and demand. Uncertainty is intrinsic in innovative products, and companies accept that, but companies that grew up in oligopoly with less competition find it more difficult to accept the high levels of uncertainty that exist today in many

Saturday, August 24, 2019

The Issue of Remorse on The Scarlet Letter by Nathaniel Hawthorne Research Paper

The Issue of Remorse on The Scarlet Letter by Nathaniel Hawthorne - Research Paper Example Various studies were conducted about the novel and they discuss the symbols, imageries, issues and parallelisms prevailing in The Scarlet Letter. The critical analysis of the novel would start with a brief biography of Nathaniel Hawthorne and also the significant issues faced by the United States of America in its early years would be analyzed in connection to the story. The main focus is on the issue of remorse faced by the main characters of the novel. Nathaniel Hawthorne came from a famous family living in Salem, Massachusetts. His relatives took care of him when his father died in a voyage. He studied at Bowdoin College together with some famous personalities in literature and politics like Horatio Bridge who became a writer, Jonathan Ciley who became a senator, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow who became a poet, and Franklin Pierce who became a president of the United States. The personalities mentioned helped Hawthorne to get a public sector job. Afterwards he started as a writer when his works imitate the style of Sir Walter Scott and was considered to be his early writing training. The Transcendentalist Movement of Ralph Waldo Emerson influenced Hawthorne by investing in the Utopian community. The Trancendentalist belief rejects formalism as they promote individualism because humans according to them are more than just sensory realm. Individualism and symbolism became prominent in Hawthorne’s later works especially in The S carlet Letter wherein the Transcendentalist ideals clashed against the ideals of the Puritans. The Custom House was written by Hawthorne as a prologue to The Scarlet Letter and also as an autobiographical essay. His published work became possible through the help of his friends. The Scarlet Letter became famous across time since morality, spirituality and identity of the Americans were affected by the Puritans. During the time of Hawthorne, adultery was considered as a taboo because of prevailing rigidity and formality of culture. The novel became popular to people from all ages across time (University of Wisconsin Milwaukee). The Scarlet Letter made its author a famous writer. After seeing the relevance of the novel to the life and time of Hawthorne, going deeper into the summary would link the history to the story. Spirituality, morality and Puritan influence on the early America were reflected in The Scarlet Letter. The novel went against the norms and showed how the dreaded beha vior and beliefs would be turned from weakness into strength. The story started from a prologue that could be considered as a standalone essay. The essay revealed how the novel was written as the narrator mirrored Hawthorne himself. The narrator worked as a surveyor in the customhouse and he found certain documents bundled and contained a piece of cloth shaped into an A. Since the narrator was careless and lost some important documents, he made a story out of the two-hundred-year-old manuscript made by a past surveyor. His creative thinking produced The Scarlet Letter  and the story opened in a Puritan settlement at Boston during the early years of USA. The scarlet letter â€Å"A† labeled on the chest of the protagonist named Hester Prynne symbolized her crime as viewed by the townspeople. She walked out of a prison cell together with her baby named Pearl. She arrived at Boston when her old and scholarly husband sent her there. Her husband was lost in the voyage and was ass umed to be dead. Because of loneliness, Hester engaged in an affair that led to the birth of Pearl. Afterwards the town elders put Hester Prynne to a public confession to reveal the father of Pearl. She did not reveal the name of

Friday, August 23, 2019

Management in Context Essay 2 Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Management in Context 2 - Essay Example The restaurant is situated near the corner of the main street between a bookshop to the left and a winter garments store to the right. There is a local deli located a few shops down the busy road where people can be seen walking in the cold, shopping and tending to their routine businesses. From the outside the restaurant seems small, with a brick wall and a tiny wood and glass door which serves as the entrance for customers. Inside, the restaurant the atmosphere is warm and cozy, almost homely. Many wooden tables can be seen scattered around, some with colorful table cloths and different kinds of chairs, some wooden and some upholstered. In the dà ©cor there is a hint of the South East Asian, however despite being a Pakistani restaurant, it does not quiet seem as Pakistani as it should. The warm colored interior reflects bits of Moroccan and even Arabic inspired decoration. A corner sofa and coffee table set up in the extreme right near the window makes it appear like a pure European coffee shop. The restaurant seems inviting and welcoming when you step in the door. The walls a are painted hues of peach, and there are many colorful cloths and drapes hanging from the ceiling. Some handicrafts can be seen placed, hand painted pots, and embroider wall hangings which seem to be representing some form of Mughal art, a distinct culture in its own. The restaurant smells of masala and cheese a mixture of ingredients. The eatery specializes in Pakistani food; however the menu card lists dishes from many other Asian countries. The menu even includes Italian, fish and chips, and a variety of coffees, ice cream and other beverages. Some of the food on the menu seems to be Chinese. Besides the traditional yogurt drink lassi there is even other beverages such as milkshake made of European fruits such as strawberry and the tropical mangoes. Many of those who walk in are

Thursday, August 22, 2019

A Long Walk to Free

A Long Walk to Freedom Essay †¢This extract is an autobiography by Nelson Mandela talking about the transition from a small undemanding child to a contributing factor in society. The writer engages our sympathy by effective use of vocabulary, various linguistic techniques and through his nostalgic tone. In the title, ‘Long Walk to Freedom,’ the long, drawn out vowels like ‘ee’ and ‘o’ reflects the struggles and difficulties in this exhausting walk. Even the word ‘walk’ co notates to the, strive for the attainment of freedom and rights of all individuals. There is a gradual flow of ideas in this extract which has a great impact as it bringing out the growth and understanding through the passage of time. In the beginning, a somber serious mood is created as they farewell their ‘last links to childhood’ and step into a wider mature world of adulthood. The ‘speeches, songs and gift-giving’ portray the African culture; the ‘sons of Xhosa’ have just been ‘circumcised’ again reflecting African customs. Due to this, the writer gains a ‘heady feeling’ of confidence and his body gestures – ‘straighter, taller, firmer’ effectively illustrate his inner feeling of pride and satisfaction. Suddenly the ‘gaily colored dreams’ darken, as the young adults now have to face the harsh reality. There is a sense of clouding of the future as the Chief would give a speech, ‘continuing a tradition. ’ The words act like a source of inspiration and encouragement, enlightening the youngsters to the disgruntled society. It is in their hands that the future lye’s, and imperative that they are exposed to the reality around them. Calling their ‘sons’ ‘young healthy and handsome,’ Meligqili begins his speech in an assertive tone. In addition to this, he also calls them ‘flower of the Xhosa’ sketching a metaphorical image of budding life and the true potential and ‘pride of [the] nation. ’ He shakens the juvenile adults with harsh words naming the ritual an ‘empty, illusory promise. ’ There is a dejected, deep sense of negation as they have ‘no strength, no power, no control’ over their ‘own destiny. ’ Furthermore, their bleak future is ragged off their rightful position as they are nothing more than ‘slaves in [their] own country,’ and ‘tenants in [their] own soil. The bitter irony behind these juxtaposed words hits us hard, as they are left with no value or significance in the very own homeland – their possession which has been snatched away from them by the whites. The pungent issue of racism is raised as ‘all South Africans, are a conquered people. ’ Moreover, in the land of their ‘birth,’ they suffer the discomfort of ‘shacks’ and ‘cheap alcohol’ since they are deprived of their own land to ‘prosper and multiply. ’ These lines repeatedly highlight the struggles, injustice and discrimination the unfortunate people endure everyday in their native soil, but yet not theirs. In addition to this, it is them who ‘cough their lungs out deep in the bowels of the white man’s mines. ’ This is the most impactful metaphor and alliteration as it allows us to visualize the inhuman, merciless conditions the people are made to work in, detrimental to their health and all for the robbed treasures of the whites. They have lost every bit of authority or belongingness of their own possessions and rather their energy, labor and efforts are wasted in filling the greed of the white men. †¢Piling up such dreadful, pathetic images, our sympathy and compassion is drawn.  We can understand the brutalizing agony internally and externally torturing these innocent people regularly due to ‘unequalled prosperity. ’ Their ‘abilities, intelligence,’ are all ‘squandered. ’ The writer uses superlatives like ‘simplest, mindless chores,’ which show their powerless nature and ‘attempt to eke out a living’ for the white men. Furthermore, the words of the chief are at the peak of disappointment where he wants a chance to ‘shake [Qamata] awake’ and tell him that ‘the flower of Xhosa nation are dying. Their state is so helpless that is seems even their God is ‘dozing’ and he repeats the ‘flower of Xhosa,’ to underline the youth – the future, beauty, innocence and strength of their fading nation. †¢All these horrific visions illustrated and the bitter, harsh words of truth leave an undying, unbelievable and undeniable impact on the reader. The words pierce through our ears, almost allowing us to feel the pain. It arouses a number of questions in our minds especially due to the irony, and great sympathy for the Africans. Yet, the young adults are only ‘more and more quiet’ and ‘more and more angry. By these repeated comparatives, the writer contrasts their present feeling of resentment to their mood of celebration earlier. All the words are slowly seeping in but it only made them rather ‘cross’ as they thought the chief was being selfish and ‘ignorant,’ in his ‘abusive comments,’ since he was not noticing the positive side – the whites brought them ‘value of the education’ and the moral cultures and etiquettes taught by them. Their tender age has almost blinded them to the ‘oppressorâ€⠄¢ behind what they think is the ‘benefactor. In all, the only thing the chief ended up doing was ‘spoiling the proud feelings with wrong headed remarks,’ for the teenagers. †¢Gradually, the pace slows and there is growth of mental maturity and realization as the true meaning of the chief’s words began to seep in Mandela’s mind. The real essence of the words had ‘sown a seed’ to the development of a potential future, although it had been ‘dormant for a long season. ’ Now, the tables turn as Mandela realizes it’s him who was the actual ‘ignorant man,’ not the chief. Adding on to the different metaphorical images; is when Mandela watches ‘the river’ ‘meander on its way. These phrases reflect back to the title and theme of a ‘long walk’ which is a route with its curves and junctions. Finally, the river ‘[empties] into the Indian Ocean,’ symbolizing his outpour of emotional success as after ‘many miles distant,’ he sees a vision of success – liberty and happiness. Although, this young adult had not yet ‘crossed that riverâ⠂¬â„¢ and his future seems very bleak, but he is now ready to face the challenges of life and combat the rocks that hinder his route, with a lot of power, struggle and hard work. His foresight is still limited as he knows ‘little or nothing of the world beyond,’ that ‘beckoned’ him. Under these words, the writer expresses how none of them had yet tasted the ‘gift’ of freedom and independence but right now, for all he knew, darkness was descending – it was ‘sunset’ already and time for him to prepare. Furthermore, we get a little more idea of the African tradition as ‘it was forbidden to look back while the lodges were burning,’ probably because we can never go back to the past and remembering it will only sadden us more and build hesitance to step into a new world. This feeling is even understood as Mandela is unable to ‘resist’ and looks back at ‘two pyramids of ashes by a large mimosa tree. ’ These ashes metaphorically symbolize the loss and fading away of a ‘delightful world’ of childhood and the ‘sweet’ ‘irresponsible days. ’ There is complete dilemma as, when he looks back, there are only faded ashes and ahead; darkness enveloping him. Also the ‘mimosa tree’ in a way symbolizes the survival of the fittest, as it is a sturdy, giant tree that continuously bears the pain of memories burning by it. †¢After a pause, there is a new picture illustrated – ‘now [he] was a man. There is a deep sense of negation and remorse as ‘never again’ would he get back those youthful, playful, mischievous days. After ‘many years’ he has finally become a man but now it’s like a re-birth to attain independence. †¢All in all, the extract ‘country childhood’ brings out the first steps of Mandela through inspirational words and encouragement; to the celebrated statesman he is now. He is a potent symbol of resistance striving out his life to attain his goal of victorious freedom and in this autobiography, he embodies the spirit of dignity and triumph of hope over despair and hatred.

Wednesday, August 21, 2019

The Great Depression in Arkansas Essay Example for Free

The Great Depression in Arkansas Essay Have you ever wondered about The Great Depression during the 1930’s? During that time period 1930-1940, there were harsh times. People got hung, prices were low. Gas price was 5 to 10 cents a gallon. One quart of milk costed 14 cents. During The Great Depression, unemployment rate was 25%. As of today, the unemployment rate is 7.2 percent. It has fallen 18.3% since 1930. People lost jobs because times were so harsh. People got depressed because of unemployment or losing their jobs. Also people got hung or killed. 27 people got hung/killed. People got mad because they caused them to get unemployed. People got mad when losing their job. People got hung for causing other people to get unemployed. During The Great Depression, one quart of milk costed 14 cents. One gallon of milk costed 55 cents. A round steak costed 42 cents. As of 2012 milk costs 4 dollars. A round steak costs 3 dollars. One quart of milk costs 1 dollar. Therefore, today we have newer automobiles and gas. During The Great Depression, a car costed about 1,000 dollars. As of 2012 a car costs 20,000 to 50,000 dollars. Gas costed 5 to 10 cents a gallon during The Great Depression. As of today gas cost 3.20 dollars a gallon. Finally, The Great Depression 1930-1941 was very harsh times for Arkansas. Some people survived and some people died, people got unemployed and depressed. People went broke; the average salary was 1,900 dollars a year.

Tuesday, August 20, 2019

Business Have Social Responsibility Other Than Maximizing Profits Philosophy Essay

Business Have Social Responsibility Other Than Maximizing Profits Philosophy Essay Companies do not operate in vacuum, according to Times of Malta (2010), yet they are a necessary part of society in which they operate. As a result, like any other responsible social citizen, businesses also have certain social responsibilities to fulfill such as maximizing profit without which the very existence of the businesses would be in jeopardy. There is of course another very vital reason as to why businesses should be considerate about fulfilling their social responsibility. If they perform as socially responsible citizens they would gain social approval that would enhance their goodwill among prospective customers and this in its turn would increase their sales. Moreover, they would not attract governmental penalties that would be their business in any risk of shutting down. Any form of unethical social acts will make it that much more difficult for them to convince prospective customers and impact will be more severe and more damaging to their organization than one can ima gine and can jeopardize their business to close down. The added problem of penalties imposed by the government, which would make it even more difficult for them to survive. At this stage, the difference between charity and social responsibility must be clarified. For example donating funds to a hospital is sure a creditable act it cannot be called as fulfilling social responsibility as a business does not fulfill any responsibility by doing charity. It is not obliged to do an act of charity but it is obligated to the society to fulfill its social responsibility. Carrying this similarity a little further, if a businessman earns money through illegal means and uses that money to open and run a hospital that treats poor patients free of cost, still that businessman cannot be said to have carried out his social responsibility. A business is said to be socially responsible if it does not engage in any activity that might harm the society even if it increases profit in the short run. Soci al responsibility of businesses implies nonparticipation in cheating customers through false advertisements and eliminating dishonesty to society itself. Social responsibility also includes decent working conditions to employees and taking care of their health and welfare. Profit, not social responsibility, should be the sole motive of business Profit itself should be the main aim of businesses. It might apparently sound rather outrageous, especially if we view this statement from the perspective of distancing profit from ethics and morality. Society may tend to view profit by itself as something unethical and immoral and any attempt at making profit is looked upon as being manipulative to society Milton Friedman illustrates, The Social Responsibility of Business is to Increase its Profits (Friedman 1970), tries to put things in proper perspective by discussing certain very basic and relevant issues in regards of businesses increasing profits as the initial goal. Before society look s into what is exactly meant by social responsibility of corporations one has to admit that corporations initial goal have a long prosperous future and are not expected to have similar social responsibilities that are not involved in the business aspect. At the most, one might admit that these businesses can have social responsibilities that would, quite obviously, be different from real social responsibilities of real persons that do not own businesses. Honoring social responsibility therefore falls on managers of those corporations as they are persons that implement and execute policies and activities. This brings us to another important aspect, that is, the relationships between managers and their stockholders, who are the real owners, of a corporation. Managers are responsible of any action on their part to fulfill so-called social responsibility. However, this does not mean that managers being individual citizens cannot do anything to fulfill what they might perceive as social responsibility. But they can do so with their own money and not with companys funds whose money and utilization has to be done according to the wishes and desires of their stockholders as they are working as a team for their business. Stockholders on the other hand can also with their own money engage in any form activity that they may believe to fit as fulfillment of social responsibility. Freidman also explains that That is why, in my book Capitalism and Freedom, I have called it a fundamentally subversive doctrine in a free society, and have said that in such a society, there is one and only one social responsibility of businessto use its resources and engage in activities designed to increase its profits so long as it stays within the rules of the game, which is to say, engages in open and free competition without deception or fraud.(Freidman, 1970) So, it is perhaps clear that the whole concept of corporate social responsibility is more of a controversial nature rather than hav ing a solid and logical base. But does that mean corporations should never engage in any activity other than profit maximization? The answer obviously cannot be in the No. According to Cosans in his scholarly article The Coperate Stake in Social Cohesion, a corporate has to operate within the legal and ethical norms of the society in which it operates and any violation of those norms would surely invite executive penalty and social censure and consequent loss of goodwill. Therefore, no corporation can take such a risk and can never engage in any activity that is either illegal or unethical (Cosans 2008). A corporation can surely set free the concepts of social responsibility if its investors decide so. A donation for a charitable purpose can be considered as an act of social responsibility, it can also be seen as an act that is motivated by genuine unselfishness to unwell and ill organizations less privileged individuals. Yet, it is perhaps needless to state that such attempts are t riggered purely by profit maximization motive and surely not social responsibility. As Freidman states if businesses to want to be socially responsible they must do it at their own expense The difficulty of exercising social responsibility illustrates, of course, the great virtue of private competitive enterpriseit forces people to be responsible for their own actions and makes it difficult for them to exploit other people for either selfish or unselfish purposes. They can do goodbut only at their own expense. (Friedman, 1970) So, however one may look at it, the main objective of corporations firmly remain maximization of profits. Corporations must fulfill their social responsibility John Steinbeck in his classic Grapes of Wrath had described profit making in such an controversial viewpoint that any one reading that text would instantly become a hater of large corporations. The setting is indeed overemotional where we find the bank on one side and the unfortunate starving farmers o n the other. The bank can be seen as such a monster that it cannot survive without making profit and it is prepared to oust people from their homes on to the roads where an uncertain future stares at them simply because it has to earn profit by some means or the other. The bank is owner of hundred thousand acres of land and is evicting small and marginal landowners from the only land they have simply because these poor farmers could not pay interest on small amounts borrowed from this bank (Steinbeck 1988). Steinbeck illustrates profit making in such harsh and dishonest ways in which the bank tries to make profit from the farmers who cannot afford to pay the bank. Just because they are poor quite obviously does not give them the right to usurp the money they had taken as loan. Steinbeck though very expressive in describing the sadness of these poor people is however silent on why should investors in these banks suffer due to the inefficiencies of these poor farmers. Though it did no t rain that year and farmers were unable to grow cotton for no fault of theirs but this definitely cannot be a justification for denying investors of the rightful due. The bank workers suggest the farmers to choose for social security measures and leave to West California, but the farmers remain stubborn on refusing to vacate the land Grampa had acquired after killing Indians and snakes. Steinbeck illustrates no remorse for the bank who had lent out money to these farmers and the employees of the bank and rather he remorses for the farmers. One might say, the author remains focused on describing in graphic detail the agonies and deprivations of these poor farmers and not understand the banks point of view as an organization and its duties. Even through the farmers harsh and immoral comments saying bring one war and once the cotton prices get high they would be able to repay all the money they owe to the bank (Steinbeck 1988). Possibly Steinbeck also realized the emptiness of the exp ression he had used to describe the vulnerability of the farmers and he tries to bring some balance through the driver who caustically remarks that such language might bring praise for the tenant man but would not be enough to earn three dollars per day the tractor driver is earning. The sorrow is sensitive by the unrealistic attempt by the tenant man to defend his dwelling from collapsing by lifting his rifle but not being sure who to aim at. It seems Steinbeck was also not sure who exactly to blame for this unpleasant situation and he chose the most convenient enemy the faceless profit eating monster called the bank. Such an outcome of profit making will only raise eyebrows rather than any serious thoughts (Steinbeck 1988). Moses Oketch however presents an highly balanced and reasonable view of why corporations should fulfill their social responsibility. While admitting that earning of profit is essential for the survival of a business and unless it survives it cannot perform any responsibility in terms of social or otherwise, Oketch speak out that for any business to prosper it needs to earn the trust of the community wherein it operates. This trust can only be earned if the corporation works towards social consistent that looks beyond the narrow imprison of shareholders to the wider ground of stakeholders. If it can execute unbiased and reasonable norms of corporate governance it would win unqualified support of its employees and who does not know that motivated and committed human resource is the greatest asset any corporation can ever possess. Oketch terms transparent and fair governance as one example of how corporations can fulfill their social responsibility. Zero tolerance of corrupt practices also would paint the organization in very favorable light in the eyes of society and it would consider the organization to be even more trustworthy. Other examples of social responsibility include engaging in partnership with governments and non-governmental or ganizations to undertake programs that might not have any direct bearing with its line of business but are burning social issues nonetheless like fight against HIV and AIDS. The main thrust of Oketchs argument is that a business must undertake socially cohesive measures as part of its social responsibility if it wants to survive and prosper (Oketch 2004). Conclusion If we keep the viewpoint of Steinbeck aside and look into the positions taken by Friedman and Oketch we find that there is hardly any difference between the two approaches. Both these authors endorse the primacy profit making and while Friedman does not elaborate more than mentioning that every business should operate within the legal and ethical framework of the society they are functioning in, Oketch goes on to detail the various steps a corporation should take to fulfill its social obligations and responsibilities. He further elaborates the extent of corporate attention from only shareholders to all stakeholders. But Friedman also hints at it when he mentions legal and ethical obligations. All the actions that corporations should initiate for social consistent have a single aim that of increasing mutual trust with society as a whole. Friedman termed it as goodwill and I guess was not very far off the mark. Therefore it can be concluded that if a corporation takes all necessary steps to make certain a steady long term profit, it is clear to carry out all those activities that are termed as corporate social responsibility not out of any social or ethical or even moral compulsion but out of pure and complete profit motive.

Essay --

Poverty and Culture One of the common liberal claim is that all "the poor are just like everyone else except that they have less money." – Anonymous The Poverty Poverty is hunger, Poverty is lack of shelter, and Poverty is being sick and not being able to see a doctor. Poverty is not being able to go to school and not knowing how to read. Poverty is not having a job, is fear for the future, living one day at a time. Poverty is losing a child to illness brought about by contaminated water. Poverty is powerlessness, lack of representation and freedom. Poverty has many faces, changing from place to place and across time, and has been described in many ways. More often, poverty is a situation people want to escape. So poverty is a call to action for the poor and the wealthy alike. This is a call to change the world so that many more may have enough to eat, adequate shelter, access to education and health, protection from violence, and a voice in what happens in their communitie s. As poverty has many dimensions, it has to be looked at through a variety of indicators, levels of income and consumption, social indicators, and now increasingly indicators of vulnerability to risks and of socio/political access. Culture Culture of any land or nation can tell us about its way of living, standards, priorities, attitudes, styles, and behaviors. Culture of any society can completed in decades or even centuries, we cannot change it rapidly. We here can discuss about the Culture of Poverty, how it is cultivated, and what factors can influence to this â€Å"Poverty Culture†. Influential factors There are many factors playing a much major role in the deficiency (not able to compete) rather than we can only talk about literacy of any nation/country... ... up with this tremendous population explosion. So far, much more work has been done using consumption or income-based measures of poverty; some work also has been done on non-income dimensions of poverty, but we should have to consider all aspects of poverty and don’t need to stick over certain area. References Free-TermPapers_com - Poverty Point Culture- WELFARE AND THE CULTURE OF POVERTY- The Culture Of Poverty- Is Poverty a Culture- Article Why Are We Poor- The New York Review of Books CULTURE OF POVERTY-

Monday, August 19, 2019

Relaxation :: essays research papers

We all human beings have our good and bad days in our every day life. We like the good days but we don’t like the bad days. Every one of us has some place where like to get away and forget about the problems. I have my place, which is my favorite gym where I spent a lot of time. Workout is the best medicine for me to relax and regain my power. I am a very healthy person who eats very clean and works out on regular bases. Staying in shape makes me feel good about keeps and myself me disciplined and motivated. Workout is a very important part of my life, which helps me to regain perspective of life and the balance that I lost through out the day. I just love to jump on the stair master on a bike, do my workout and just fly away with my thought. After ninety minutes of workout I am tired and sweaty. The tiredness feels very good and it feels like I am recharged aging. In the essay â€Å"A Visit with the Folks† by Russell Baker the author also has his place where he likes to go to and relax. Baker enjoys coming to the old cemetery in the countryside to visit his relatives. He goes there to gain his perspective and the guidance he has lost to the difficult outside world. When he goes back to the cemetery to see his dead family members â€Å"it slows the juices down something marvelous† he says. From time to time, Baker goes back to a churchyard cemetery situated in a beautiful countryside surrounded by the view of blue mountains, blossoming roses on fieldstone fences and fields of white daisies. He goes there to visit his family members who passed away. As he moves from tombstones to tombstones, he remembers his folks and individually recalls memories and situations about them from the pass. He bear in mind his folks and guidance they gave him. For example, he remembers his uncle Lewis who was a barber who always wanted to give him a haircut. Such encounter with his memories changes his state of mind and conquers his busy life in the city. At the end Baker â€Å"leaves rather more content with the worldâ€Å" because he learns how the peace of countryside and memories of relatives help him to recover his consciousness.

Sunday, August 18, 2019

Dulce et Decorum Est Essays -- Comparative, Owen, Cummings

Wilfred Owen’s â€Å"Dulce et Decorum Est† and E. E Cummings’, â€Å"next to of course god america i† are poems that critique patriotic propaganda. Both poems use words and images to effectively depict the influence that patriotic propaganda has on war. â€Å"Dulce et Decorum Est† uses descriptive words to create realistic images of the horrors soldiers are faced with during combat, whereas â€Å"next to of course god america i† uses sarcasm to inform readers that the abuse of propaganda can be used to manipulate others. The attitudes they convey are quite similar; both suggest that propaganda is a lie; it is not sweet and fitting to die for one’s country. It is ingrained in soldier’s minds that to die for ones country is a great and honourable sacrifice. However, in the poem Dulce et Decorum Est the speaker uses powerful words and images to portray that patriotic propaganda is an â€Å"old lie† (Owen 27). In the first stanza, the speaker explains the effects that war has on young soldiers: â€Å"Bent double, like old beggars under sacks/ Knock- Kneed, coughing like hags, we cursed through sludge† (Owen 1-2). Propaganda portrays soldiers as being young heroes, those who are strong, healthy and vigorous. However, based on the evidence expressed in the previous quotation soldiers are not all what propaganda portrays them to be. The speaker chooses words such as â€Å"bent double, like old baggers† and â€Å"knock-kneed† (Owens 1-2) to expose the discomfort and effects that war has on young soldiers. The soldiers are discreetly compared to crippled old men which emphasizes just how badly war has affected their bodies, stripping them of their health, making them weak and helpless like â€Å"old beggars† (Owen 1). Furthermore, the speaker expresses his experience as a sold... ...upport of patriotic propaganda. The speaker may be worried because of the fear of what he is saying will cause him to being labelled as unpatriotic. Cumming could have incorporated this line into the poem to enforce personal beliefs and protect national pride. Both poems would agree that patriotic propaganda is a method used to alter nation’s values and ideas. Although both poems differ in the portrayal of the patriotic message they both criticize the affects of propaganda. For those who believe that it is sweet and fitting to die for one’s country, any man who has experienced war first hand would admit that patriotic propaganda is a lie. It would be interesting to further analyze the poems and consider how historical usage of propaganda and modern media by politicians compare, as well as to analyse if propaganda today is still using and abusing patriotism.

Saturday, August 17, 2019

Happy Teacher

â€Å"HAPPY TEACHER† A Narrative Report on Practice Teaching 2011- 2012 Maria Regina D. Gile My parents would always tell me how I dreamed of becoming a teacher in the future. I would usually be found holding a book and a pen, scribbling some notes and cutting off sheets of paper. A chalk and a board was my favourite, they would say, with matching pointing stick. I guess ever since, I find teachers so majestic and powerful and smart that made me want to be one. That was BEFORE not until now. Not today. I want to become a fashion designer, an interior designer, anything that has to do with the Arts. I love anything related to it.Colours, pegs, pencils, paintbrushes, everything. That is what I want. But you see, not all that we want, we get. This is what I want but I’m taking up what I don’t want. BS Education. Well for one it’s because a lot of people look at it as a low profession. Second, monetarily speaking, it does not tantamount to all the works to be done and efforts exerted. And lastly, my patience level? Err. Below Average. I cannot tolerate slow learners, or mentally challenged ones, or whatever you call them. I just am not comfortable with that. But fate brought me here. God brought me here. Although hard to accept, I had to.The first few years of me being an Education Student went quite well. I got high satisfactory grades, loved by teachers and gained friends. Everything was going well. I could get used to this, I thought to myself. Four years and I still haven’t shifted. Cool. And in my fourth year, the â€Å"total defining moment† has finally arrived; and that is to Practice Teaching- in an unfamiliar environment- just us- no back- up. Oh great, I thought. I better ready myself. I cannot back out! THIS IS A REQUIREMENT! I NEED TO DO IT IN ORDER TO GRADUATE! And so i did. I entered the room sheepishly with all eyes on me.Not to mention the slight murmurs children made and slight laughs. Boom- boom- boom! My heart went. I was assigned to Grade 1 students. I can do this. So in the first few weeks, i observed and supervised classes but not really went to the act of teaching. Children would usually approach me, asking me to open their biscuits, punch straws on their juices and fix their belts. It felt good and that was quite odd. I never opened myself to this perspective. Days went on and I realized i have memorized their names in just a week. I would usually call out their names to tell them to keep quiet, to fall in line and to fix their things.I’m lovin’ this i thought. What even made me realize i could be in this profession is when students started giving me cute little heart shaped papers telling me how much they love me and how beautiful i am. These kids really know how to appreciate every small little thing! My presence, they say, makes them feel safe and that they never want me to go away. Isn’t that sweet? Until finally i realized, i could be a teacher. I love kids, i love how they express their gratitude, i love the classroom setting! It makes me feel confident and safe and everything! And from that moment, i realized i wanted to become a Grade- school teacher.Not because i am enforced in this course but because i want it. Yes, i want to become a teacher. My â€Å"realization† was even strengthened when i started teaching. At first i was extremely nervous and uneasy because i do not know what to expect. Will they listen to me? Will they learn from me? Can they adapt to my strategy? All of these questions kept running in my mind until one student approached me and gave me a hug. I needed that. I instantly felt at ease. It felt like home. So i went on. The night before my teaching, i practiced and prepared myself very well. From the motivation, presentation, lesson proper and all.I didn’t want to fail. I need to impress my students, my critic teacher. So going back, when i started talking in front, i find myself getting more energetic and excited. i love talking and this profession allows me to maximize my mouth muscles! Great! The kids started listening attentively, actively participated and they are getting excited too! With this, i even thought, i am a great teacher! I can arouse their interest, they are listening and my critic teacher is smiling! It feels good and rewarding, honestly. All the things i have learned, i integrated, all the strategies taught, i applied and i said to myself this is gonna be fun!And so, i always prepared lessons even two days before and thought of different ways to motivate my students. I injected humor in my discussions that made the class lively, games to challenge the students, and riddles and more. It was fulfilling to see those timid students before were actively reciting and are motivated by me. I got so attached to all of them easily, taking care of them as if my own children. They’re my little angels! And everyday i look forward to see them despite the ted ious works and deadlines. I know that becoming a teacher isn’t easy. It requires a lot of patience and hard work and passion.And i am thankful to God for bringing me here. If i didn’t give it a try, i wouldn’t have seen the beauty of this profession. Thanks to St. Paul too, for this practice teaching. It exposed me to an environment i would probably be dealing with for the rest of my life and through this Pauline Education, not only has it moulded me as a professional but a teacher with a heart and values. Finally, with the practice teaching i have experienced, it served as an eye- opener that becoming a teacher is not bad at all. It is a fulfilling profession not only academically or professionally but a food for the soul.

Friday, August 16, 2019

My Aim in Life Essay

Aim is the target which we want to achieve towards which our physical and mental abilities are focused. Life is the period which starts from the time of birth and ends at death. People have their own strength, culture and liking. Depending upon these elements people have different kinds of aims in life. For example, some people are doctors, engineers, Charter Accountants, pilots, teachers and many more. Our life is too short so we have to strive to attain our aim with all our hard work. The main objective for achieving the aim is to get material pleasures, mental happiness as well as satisfaction. Once a person achieves his aim he can live a prosperous life. My aim in life is to become a successful gynecologist. Gynecologist is a doctor which deals with the health of female reproductive system. To accomplish this aim I am planning to study +2 in India taking Science as the main subject after I attend my SLC examinations. After that I want to become a medical student of a top university of gynecology. I will attend different kinds of trainings, research and programs. This profession is also respected all over the world. I have been inspired by one of the top gynecologist of Nepal, Dr. Supatra Koirala. The present scenario of the reproductive healthcare of the women in Nepal in overall is not satisfactory. Due to this, the maternal and child mortality rate of our country is very high. I would conduct different awareness programs in the remote areas of our country and provide free medical services to the economically back warded people and be a helping hand for the development of my country. Thus, once I achieve my aim I would help to improve the reproductive and sexual healthcare of the women countrywide. I want to make the women of my society healthier and happier. By becoming a gynecologist, I would live a prosperous life and be a productive and global citizen of my country.

Thursday, August 15, 2019

Aerofoil Design Xflr5

Aashiq Zakir Hussain12108227 | Supervisor : | Dr. Patrick Frawley | Submission : Date | 26th October 2012 | ABSTRACT Airfoil is the main part of the airplane which contributes the lift required by the airplane to fly in the air. By varying the wing’s area and the angle of attack, different lift can be created and can be used to fly the airplane. This program named XFLR5 is used for determining the airfoil characteristics.It will help them to save a lot of time on computing the equations and on the trial and error method. The program can also be used as basic tool to show the users what will happen when some variables like Reynolds number, the AOA of the wings and the speed of the aircraft are changed and how it will affect the results and lift generated. This project report deals with the analysis of widely used airfoils in the modern aircrafts. In this analysis, the lift, drag, pressure profiles and their coefficients of the airfoils are been calculated using xflr5 program.Th ese are obtained in the form of graphical representation by feeding data such as Reynolds number, Mach number, Angle of Attack and dimensions of the airfoils to the program. The results such as maximum lift coefficient, stalling angle, maximum lift to drag ratio and such parameters are obtained and are been compared with each other.Re| Reynolds number| -| ?| Angle of Attack| -| M| Mach number| -| Cp | Pressure Coefficient| -| Cl| Lift Coefficient| -| Cd| Drag Coefficient| -| Cl / Cd| Glide Ratio| -| T| Thickness| mm| c| Chord| -| INTRODUCTION Airfoils are the primary shapes which allow streamlined flow over it when it is driven through air. These shapes do not produce much drag compared to other shapes as so it is used in all aircraft structural parts which is subjected to airflow. Basically airfoils can be divided into many types by slightly varying their thickness, length, camber area and so on without after the shape.In this analysis we deal with airfoil shapes known as NACA airf oils. The  NACA airfoils  are just  shapes of airfoils used for aircraft wings, which is developed by the  National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics  (NACA). The shape of the NACA airfoils is determined using a  series  of digits followed by the word â€Å"NACA. † The series is divided using digits from 1-8. We only deal with the 4-digit series of airfoils in this analysis. The 4 digit airfoils we are going to discuss in this analysis are 0004, 0008, 0012, 0016, 0020, 0312, 1312, 2312, 3312, 2112, 2512 and 2712.In this 4 digit series, 1st digit denotes the maximum  camber  as percentage of the  chord, 2nd digit denotes the distance of maximum camber from the airfoil leading edge in tens of percent's of the chord and this last 3rd and 4th digits denotes  maximum thickness of the airfoil as percent of the chord. The key features we are going to discuss about in this analysis are the effects of Angle of Attack, Reynolds number, Mach number, Camber and Thi ckness. The basic aerodynamic design is to obtain maximum lift and minimum drag which will be expressed in terms of coefficient of lift (Cl) and coefficient of drag (Cd).Using this program known as XFLR5, we are going to compare the characteristics of all the airfoils. As the operating valves such as Angle of Attack, Mach number, Reynolds number are to be fed in to the program and this will give us the required graph of the parameters such as Cl, Cd, alpha, Cp and so on. Using these results achieved from the program, it will be easier to find out the airfoil with highest Cl at various angles of attack, which has got highest stalling angle and the airfoil with best glide ratio and so on. OBJECTIVESThis report is basically done to find out airfoils with maximum lift to drag ratio by comparing many airfoils each other and allowing their camber area, thickness and the location of the camber to deviate to the small percentage of the chord. By doing this, we can achieve a best airfoil des ign that can be used in live aircrafts. LITERATURE REVIEW Introduction: * If an aircraft has to fly, force has to be counter balanced by the weight as it must be opposite to its magnitude. This force is known as lift. Lift plays a major factor on the airplane flight.The main plane (wings) generates more lift as it is the important load carrying member. * The aerofoil sections have been started to get developed in late 1800’s. In 1884 H. F. Phillips with the help of wind tunnel, tested and made series of airfoils. At the same time Otto Lilienthal with the help of the bird’s wings, designed airfoil shapes. It was found that the key factor is that the wing curvature or camber. The early airplanes were biplanes because, the airfoils were thin and cambered as shown in figure 2. 1. Figure 2. 1: Hanson http://www. biplanefun. om/assets/Image/Hanson_215217_001. jpg Nowadays these types of aircrafts are not used, as all airfoils are made by trial and error method. Airfoils used in 1920’s (NACA). ( http://www. desktop. aero/appliedaero/airfoils1/images/sections1. gif) Figure 2. 2: Ancient development in airfoils For the project, the NACA 4 digit airfoil format will be use for the program which is generating the airfoil’s shape and the thin airfoil theory will be use for computing the important parameters of the wing. * 1. ii Terminology for Airfoil and Airplane:Basic parts of an airfoil that must be known before getting in to the chapter of NACA 4 digit series. The diagram below describes the parts of an airfoil from which series are determined. Figure 2. 3: Airfoil Terminology airfoil (http://www. copters. com/aero/pictures/Fig_2-10. gif) Figure 2. 5: Plane Axes (http://www. allstar. fiu. edu/aero/images/fig25. gif) 1. iii Definitions: The line drawn midway between the upper and lower surfaces of the airfoil is known as mean camber.The straight line joining the leading and trailing edges of the airfoil is known as chord. Leading edge is the front of the airfoil. Trailing edge is the end of the airfoil. The angle between the chord and the line representing the relative airflow is known as the angle of attack (AOA). Camber of an airfoil is the upper and lower surfaces curvature. The airfoil’s thickness and amount of lift the airfoil will generate is determined by the cambered area. When the term upper camber is used, it is referring to the upper surface of the airfoil. When the term lower camber is used, it is referring to the lower surface of the airfoil.Span is the distance from a tip of the wing to the other tip of the wing. * 1. iv The Four Forces on the Airplane Figure 2. 6: Forces on an airplane (http://anjungsainssmkss. files. wordpress. com/2011/09/plane_forces. jpg) * The four main forces that maintain the aircraft in steady flight and helps fly are Lift, Drag, Weight and Thrust. Thrust is a forward pulling which is generated by the engine(powerplant). Thrust opposes the drag. Thrust depends upon the powe r of the engine as high power engines produce more thrust and the type of the engines with respect to their mounted location.Drag is a force which opposes the thrust as when the aircraft moves in high speed the air passes over and below the surface produce drag. It is a resistive force. The weight is a force of an airplane which is acting downwards due to the force of gravity. This force pulls down on the plane and opposes the lift force. This force mainly depends upon the weight of the aircraft and so it depends upon how much we load and the total weight we use to build the aircraft. Lift is an important force in the aircraft which tends the aircraft to fly.It is generated as aircraft moves at high speed and is generated below the airfoil surface of the main plane. At this time, there will be low pressure acting over the wing and high pressure under the wing. The four forces act on any airplanes in flight and are interconnected. In order for the airplane to take off, lift must over come weight and thrust must overcome drag. During landing, thrust must be reduced below the level of drag and lift must be reduced below the weight of the airplane. * * * 1. v Theory of Lift: * Lift is an important force as it sustains an airplane in ir and enables it to manoeuvre. The theory of lift has been debated for a long time and currently still debating. However this project is not about debating the theory of lift but to design the airfoil. Therefore to cover the theory of lift, the 2 more popular explanations which are the Newton’s Law and the Bernoulli’s Principle will be discuss briefly. * Principles of Physics such as the principle of conservation of momentum, the principle of the conservation of mass and the principle of the conservation of energy are the basic principles to be known and to be considered to understand lift force.The principle of the conservation of momentum is covered by Newton’s Law. And the principle of the conservation of energy is covered Bernoulli Principles. Both can be use to explain the basics principles on how lift is form and are compatible with each other. In the following explanations, air is assumed as an ideal fluid and therefore 3 major assumptions about the physical properties of the airflow are made: * The airflow over a wing is incompressible. The airflow is inviscid which means the viscosity of air is approaching zero. The airflow around the wing is steady. * * * 1. vi Newton’s Law Explanation: Lift is generated by a wing as it moves through the air at an angle of attack. This will turn the airflow downward and the wing itself will have the force acting in an upward direction. In order to make use of the Newton’s Law, we need to know a theory known as the Coanda Effect. Coanda Effect stated â€Å"A moving stream of fluid in contact with a curved surface will tend to follow the curvature of the surface rather than continue travelling in a straight line. † This states tha t, when the air hits the wing when it is subjected through air, the angle changes the wing dimension as it is tilted to an extent.At this stage air do not reflect back as it stays over the wing. From Coanda Effect, we know that the wing is changing the direction of the airflow and also changing the velocity. Since lift is a force, according to Newton’s 2nd law of motion: * Force = mass x acceleration (F=ma) * Acceleration is a change in velocity with respect to time and force will be: * Force = mass x (change in velocity / change in time) * Therefore a change in velocity will generate a force and a force will cause a change in velocity.Velocity has both a magnitude called speed and a direction is associated with it. It is a vector quantity. Therefore by changing the direction of the airflow, the wing is also causing an increase in velocity which results in an acceleration. This change in velocity also generates a reaction force on the wing acting in an upwards direction. * Th is principle of Newton’s 3rd law which states â€Å"Every action has an equal and opposite reaction† helps to explain the nature of lift. The reaction force experienced by the wing is the total reaction. Figure 2. : Forces on an airfoil (http://www. free-online-private-pilot-ground-school. com/images/forces_airfoil. gif) * 1. vii Bernoulli’s Principle: Bernoulli’s Principle can be referred to as the law of conservation of energy and the total energy in a moving mass of fluid consists of potential energy, kinetic energy and the fluid’s pressure energy. It states that sum of all energies result in a constant value for the steady flow of an ideal fluid. Bernoulli’s Principle shows that as the velocity of a fluid flow changes, the pressure will change as well.This means that when the fluid’s velocity increases, the pressure will decrease and vice versa. Using this principle of pressure variation with velocity change, lift force developed by the wing can be accurately predicted in the same way as Newton’s Law. Figure 2. 8: Example of Bernoulli’s Principle (http://images. rcuniverse. com/magazine/reviews/455/bernoulli. jpg) Using Bernoulli’s Principle, the kinetic energy of the air will be highest where the pressure energy is the lowest and lowest where the pressure energy is the highest.This will result in an increase of the airflow for the upper surface of the wing and decreases for the lower surface of the wing. Therefore there will be a lower pressure on the upper surface of the wing and a higher pressure on the lower surface of the wing. This will result in a force acting in an upwards direction. Using equation: Force = Pressure x Area The lift force will be proportional to the pressure differential across the wing multiplied by the wing’s surface area. For Bernoulli’s Principle, it does not provide any explanation on why the airflow is faster on the top surface of the wing.The Newton’s Law also did not explain why the air deflects downward. Both theories only explain how lift is created. * 1. viiiThe Factors affecting Lift: Lift is the main source of force which enables the airplanes to fly. In order to generate enough lift, several factors have to be taken into consideration as they affect the amount of lift the airplane can generate. The general equation for lift is Lift = lift coefficient x {(air density x velocity2)/2} x wing area Where the lift coefficient is given by: Lift coefficient = 2 x pi x (AOA – calculated AOA at zero lift) Therefore the factors affecting lift are: The Angle of Attack (AOA). * The airfoil shape. * Airspeed. * Wing size. * Air density. The air density depends on the height which the airplane is flying. As the height of the airplane decreases, the air density will increase which will also result in higher lift generated. Therefore to generate the same amount of lift when the air density increases, the velocity of the airplane must increase. The Angle of Attack (AOA) of the airplane’s wing which is denoted by the Greek letter alpha ?. AOA is the angle between the oncoming air or relative wind and a reference line on the wing which in this case is the chord.It is one of the important parameters for handling and designing of a plane as a typical wing only has a limited range of angles of attack As the AOA increases, the lift generated by the airfoil is also increased. However, once the AOA reaches a certain angle known as the Critical Angle, the airplane will stall as the airflow will separate from the upper surface, resulting in a loss of lift which means the airplane will stall. This will result in cavitations and lose in lift force. It will also produce drag force as shown in figure 2. 9. Figure 2. 9: Diagram of how AOA affects the air flow (http://www. ero-mechanic. com/wp-content/uploads/2008/12/2-8-283Ãâ€"300. jpg) The lift depends upon the airfoil and the force the air flows over it. Thus when airflow is more, lift produced is maximum. Comparing a cambered airfoil and a symmetric airfoil, a cambered airfoil produced more lift than a symmetric airfoil. Even a flat plate subjected to the air will produce lift. Thus the airfoil should be designed in such a way that it produces high lift to drag ratio. * 1. ix NACA 4 series: In the 1930s, the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) developed several sets of airfoils and camber lines.The â€Å"Characteristics of 78 Related Airfoil Sections from Tests in the Variable Density Wind Tunnel† report was published by the NACA. In this report, the authors discovered that the airfoils that are successful had many similarities. The two primary variables that affected the airfoil shapes are the slope of the airfoil mean camber line and the thickness distribution above and below the line. Many of this airfoil shapes have been in use as tails and wings of airplanes over the years. The first family of airfoi ls designed using this approached is the NACA 4 series.In the NACA 4 series, the 1st digit indicates the maximum camber (m) in percentage of the chord, the 2nd digit indicates the position of the maximum camber (p) in tenths of cord and the last 2 digits provide the maximum thickness (t) of the airfoil in percentage of chord. For example, the NACA 2412 airfoil will have a maximum camber of 2% located at 40% from the leading edge with maximum thickness of 12% cord. 4-digit series airfoils by default have a maximum thickness of 30% of the chord from the leading edge. Therefore with the first 2 digits 00, it indicates that there is no camber and is a symmetrical airfoil.To find the mean camber line, it can be calculated using: To calculate for the thickness distribution, equation 2. 3 is used. Currently in the market, there are several NACA 4 series airfoil generators. These generators calculate the coordinates of the airfoil shape. However, it does not take into consideration of the l oad that the airfoil will be taking, meaning the surface area of the wings are not taking into consideration. There is also not much program which enables the user to calculate the whole wing surface area and the lift generated by the wing with different airfoil design. 1. x Thin Airfoil Theory: For this project, the Thin Airfoil Theory will be use to compute the model airplane’s airfoil thickness and wing dimension as the thickness for the model airplane’s wing is not very thick. Thin airfoil theory was devised by German mathematician Max Munk and further refined by British aerodynamicist Hermann Glauert and others in 1920s. It is a simple theory of airfoils that relates the angle of attack to lift. The theory idealizes the flow around an airfoil as a 2 dimensional flow around a thin airfoil.At low angles of incidence, the boundary layer growth on an airfoil is thin and remains attached to the airfoil. Therefore the airflow is assumed to be inviscid and irrotational. Since the thickness of any lifting airfoil is less than a fifth of its chord length, the effect of the airfoil’s thickness can be neglected and the airfoil will be represented by its mean camber line. A mathematically conceived function in the form of a vortex sheet is then placed along the length of the camber line to simulate the airfoil. This essentially makes it a streamline of the flow.By applying the circulation theory of lift to this streamline, the aerodynamic properties of the airfoils are obtained. The airfoil is considered as having zero thickness and infinite wingspan. This the reason why the theory does not take into consideration the induced drag that arises from the wing tips of an airfoil. Therefore it is only good for approximating an airfoil with medium and large aspect ratio and only up to the stall angle which is usually 10 to 15 degree for typical airplane configuration. Any angle beyond 15 degree, the thin airfoil theory cannot be used to calculate the c oefficient of lift.Thin airfoil theory is important as it provided a theoretical basis for the important properties of the airfoils in 2 dimensional flows: * The centre of pressure lies exactly ? of the chord behind the leading edge on a symmetric airfoil. * The aerodynamic centre lies exactly ? of the chord behind the leading edge for cambered airfoil. * The slope of the lift coefficient versus angle of attack line is 2? units per radian. There are many formulae that states the derivation of the thon airfoil theory, but we don’t require those for our project and so its neglected. xi Flat Plate Airfoil Theory:Flat plate theory is applied to airfoils as the thickness is also the constituent of drag in the airfoil. The flat plate when it is subjected to airflow the drag minimum as compared to the other shapes with reasonable thickness. Thickness cannot be neglected as it also plays a vital role in the camber surface as it produces lift. The transition point can be pushed back a s we reduce the drag in an airfoil by which we can get a good lift curve for higher degrees. In case of boundary layer, the drag in a flat plate will be laminar for a certain period of time and it then become turbulent.There is no unique valve where the stream gets turbulent, but by keeping the laminar surface clean and free stream, one can delay the renolds number. Figure 2. 10: Velocity profiles for laminar and turbulent boundary layer EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE AND ANALYSIS Introduction: These experiments below are done using xflr5 program. NACA 4 digit series airfoils are been used in the analysis. In the final analysis, NACA airfoils ranging from 0 to 9% of camber magnitude, 10 to 70% of camber location and 3% to 30% of thickness airfoils are analysed to get an airfoil of better performance with high to lift to drag ratio.Exercise A: Effect of Angle of Attack Airfoil = NACA 0012 Re number = 1000000 M = 0. 00 Part 1: In this part, the pressure profiles for different angle of attack are to be discussed. AOA( Alpha ) : -4 to 16 degrees with a step of 4 degrees Figure 3. 1: Pressure profiles plot of NACA 0012 Angle of attack(alpha)| Cl| Cd| -4| -0. 429| 0. 007| 0| -0. 00| 0. 005| 4| 0. 429| 0. 007| 8| 0. 910| 0. 012| 12| 1. 242| 0. 020| 16| 1. 301| 0. 050| Part 2: In this part we discuss about the lift, drag and their coefficients. Angle of Attack (alpha) = -4 to 18 degrees with a step of 0. degrees Figure 3. 2: Drag coefficient and Angle of attack plot Figure 3. 3: Lift coefficient and Angle of attack plot Figure 3. 4: Glide ratio and Angle of attack plot Figure 3. 5: Lift coefficient and Drag coefficient plot Analysis: Part 1: In this part, the angle of attack is changed from -4 degrees to 16 degrees with fixed Reynolds number and Mach number. The pressure profiles seem to have gradual increase in both negative and positive values on Cp. As the angle of attack increases, the lift and drag increases to a certain limit and stalls.Maximum lift is at 14 degrees and thus stall occurs. Cl max is 1. 36. It is consistent as Bernoulli’s approach on analysis. Part 2: In this part, the angle of attack is varied from -4 degrees to 18 degrees. Re and M is same as above. The lift curve passes through the origin, so zero lift is at origin (0 degrees). Max Cl is at 1. 36 where the stall angle is at 4 degrees. The maximum glide ratio is 75. 86 and at this point the values of Cl is 0. 8685, value of Cd is 0. 0115 and the value of alpha is 7. 5 degrees. Exercise B: Effect of Reynolds number Airfoil = NACA 0012 Alpha (AOA) = 4 degrees M = 0. 00Part 1: In this part, we discuss about the effects due to change in Reynolds number in NACA 0012 airfoil. Re number = 100000 to 2. 1 million with an increment of 400000 Figure 3. 6: Pressure profiles plot Part 2: In this part, we discuss about the effects due to change in Reynolds number and Angle of attack in NACA 0012 airfoil. Re number = 100000, 500000, 900000, 2100000, 4000000. AOA (alpha) = -4 to 20 degrees with a step of 0. 5 degrees. Figure 3. 7: Glide ratio and alpha plot Figure 3. 8: Drag coefficient and alpha plot Figure 3. 9: Lift coefficient and alpha plot Figure 3. 10: Lift and Drag polarRe number| Max Cl| Stall angle(degrees)| Max Cl/Cd| Cl at Max Cl/Cd| Cd at Max Cl/Cd| Alpha at Max Cl/Cd| 100000| 0. 97| 10. 5| 36. 5| 0. 61| 0. 017| 5 degrees| 500000| 1. 21| 13. 5| 61. 9| 0. 72| 0. 012| 6 degrees| 900000| 1. 35| 14. 5| 73. 6| 0. 86| 0. 011| 7. 5 degrees| 2100000| 1. 57| 17| 92. 5| 0. 97| 0. 0105| 8. 5 degrees| 4000000| 1. 67| 18. 5| 107. 3| 1. 073| 0. 010| 9. 5 degrees| Analysis: Part 1: In this case there is an increase in the pressure values as increase in Re number and the transition is point is pushed backwards in the curve with Reynolds number 4000000 than the curves with Reynolds number less than that.Part 2: In this case, the transition point is brought backwards as there is an increase in the boundary layer. It just pushes the stall angle further towards the leading edge. For Re= 100000, drag is increased more at high angle of attack. For high Re number, lift coefficient is more than low Re number and the drag is minimised at high angle of attack in high Re number curves. Exercise C: Effect of Mach number Airfoil = NACA 0012 Re number = 2 million Part 1: In this part, we are discussing about the effects in forces due to change in Mach number. Alpha (AOA) = 4 degrees M = 0. 00, 0. 1, 0. 02, 0. 03 Figure 3. 11: Pressure plot of M=0. 00 Figure 3. 12: Pressure plot of M=0. 01 Figure 3. 13: Pressure plot of M=0. 2 Figure 3. 14: Pressure plot of M=0. 3 Part 2: In this part, we are going to see the difference in the curves for different Mach numbers mentioned in part 1 and also with Angle of attacks from -4 to 30 degrees with a step of 0. 5 degrees. Figure 3. 15: Lift coefficient and Alpha Figure 3. 16: Drag coefficient and Alpha Figure 3. 17: Glide ratio and Alpha Figure 3. 8: Lift and Drag polar M| Cl Max| Stall angle(degrees)| Cl/Cd Max| Cl at Cl/C d Max| Cd at Cl/Cd Max| Alpha at Cl/Cd Max| 0. 0| 1. 560| 17| 91. 5| 0. 975| 0. 0104| 8. 5 degrees| 0. 1| 1. 540| 16. 5| 91. 25| 0. 985| 0. 0105| 8. 5 degrees| 0. 2| 1. 475| 15. 5| 90. 3| 1. 00| 0. 0115| 8. 5 degrees| 0. 3| 1. 355| 73| 88. 4| 0. 97| 0. 0110| 8 degrees| Analysis: Part 1: In this analysis, there is a change in pressure (Cp). As the Mach number increases, the value of Cp increases in the negative values. Due to the increase in speed, the transition point in moved towards the leading edge and stall angle decreases.Part 2: In this part, the angle of attack is also changed with the Mach number. We can see the effect of lift and drag from the values in the table given above in part 2. At the highest AOA the Cl value is increased. As the Mach number increases, the value of Cl max and the stalling angle drops down as it tends to stall soon in high ach number. Exercise D: Effect of Thickness In this exercise, various airfoils of different thickness are used. The values are ta ken from the program and compared with each other. Re = 2000000, M = 0. 00, AOA(alpha) = -4 to 20 degrees with a step of 0. Airfoils = NACA 0004, NACA 0008, NACA 0012, NACA 0016, NACA 0020 Figure 3. 19: Drag coefficient and Alpha plot Figure 3. 20: Glide ratio and Alpha plotFigure 3. 21: Lift coefficients and Drag coefficient plot Figure 3. 22: Lift coefficient and Alpha plot NACA airfoils| Max Cl| Stalling angle(degrees)| Max Cl/Cd| Cl at Max Cl/Cd| Cd at Max Cl/Cd| Alpha at Max Cl/Cd| 0004| 0. 96| 20| 48. 1| 0. 325| 0. 007| 3 degrees| 0008| 1. 15| 11. 5| 79. 85| 0. 775| 0. 010| 7 degrees| 0012| 1. 563| 17| 91. 52| 0. 977| 0. 010| 8. 5 degrees| 0016| 1. 578| 18| 93. 10| 1. 228| 0. 013| 11 degrees| 0020| 1. 45| 18. 5| 92. 4| 1. 000| 0. 010| 9. 5 degrees| Analysis: Due to the thickness, there is a change in lift as it can be observed in figure 3. 13. As NACA 0004 is thin, it stalls soon. But NACA 0020 and NACA 0016 airfoils has high value of Cl and this attains at almost 18 degrees o f AOA. From this it can be said that, if thickness increases the lift increases, but its for certain limit as Cl max drops in NACA 0020. The curves given above for each airfoil cannot be believed till end. This is only applicable theoretically that if an airfoil begins to stall, it can regain its lift after some angle further.In practical application, it is false. The curves can be believed till the first major stall occurs which attains Cl max. Exercise E: Effect of camber, magnitude In this exercise, the airfoils of different camber are been discussed i. e. the first digit of the NACA 4 digit series is been changed and compared. Re number = 2000000, M = 0. 00, AOA (alpha) = -4 to 20 degrees with a step of 0. 5 degrees Airfoils = NACA 0012, NACA 0312, NACA 1312, NACA 2312, NACA 3312 Figure 3. 23: Glide ratio and Alpha plot Figure 3. 23: Drag coefficient and Alpha plot Figure 3. 24: Lift coefficient and Alpha plot Figure 3. 5: Lift and Drag coefficients plot NACA Airfoils| Max Cl| S talling angle(degrees)| Max Cl/Cd| Cl at Max Cl/Cd| Cd atMax Cl/Cd| Alpha at Max Cl/Cd| Zero Lift| 0012| 1. 546| 17| 91. 5| 0. 955| 0. 0105| 8. 5degrees| 0 degree| 0312| 1. 546| 17| 91. 5| 0. 955| 0. 0105| 8. 5degrees| 0degree| 1312| 1. 610| 17| 98. 4| 0. 901| 0. 0094| 7 degrees| -1degree| 2312| 1. 664| 17| 122. 3| 0. 865| 0. 0071| 5. 5degrees| -2degree| 3312| 1. 712| 16. 5| 140. 5| 1. 008| 0. 0072| 6 degrees| -3degree| Analysis: As the magnitude of the camber is changed, the lift is attained way before than a normal airfoil with less camber surface.Symmetrical airfoil is that in which upper and lower surface are same and asymmetrical has various shapes in it. In these two types, the symmetrical airfoil produces less lift-drag ratio than asymmetrical airfoils. Due to the camber in the airfoil, in NACA 1312, NACA 2312 and NACA 3312 has started producing lift at negative angles as other two produces only after 0 degrees. Hence the lift is acquired soon and as angle increases, the drag produced is also less than in airfoils NACA 0012 and NACA 0312. Exercise F: Effect of camber, locationIn this exercise, we change the location of the camber and analyse their changes in curves. Re number = 2000000, M = 0. 00, AOA (alpha) = -4 to 20 with a step of 0. 5 degrees Airfoils = NACA 0012, NACA 2112, NACA 2312, NACA 2512, NACA 2712 Figure 3. 26: Drag coefficient and Alpha plot Figure 3. 27: Lift coefficient and Alpha plot Figure 3. 28: Glide ratio and Alpha plot Figure 3. 29: Lift coefficient and Drag coefficient plot NACA Airfoils| Max Cl| Stall angle(degrees)| Max CL/Cd| Cl at Max Cl/Cd| Cd at Max Cl/Cd| Alpha at MaxCL/Cd| Zero lift(degrees)| 0012| 1. 563| 17| 91. 5| 0. 55| 0. 0103| 8. 5degrees| 0| 2112| 1. 726| 17| 117. 0| 1. 145| 0. 0128| 12degrees| -1. 85| 2312| 1. 675| 17| 122. 3| 0. 865| 0. 0072| 5. 5degrees| -2. 02| 2512| 1. 694| 17| 111. 0| 0. 769| 0. 0068| 4. 5degrees| -2. 37| 2712| 1. 741| 17| 102. 5| 0. 962| 0. 0093| 6 degrees| -3. 056| Analysis: In this analysi s, the location of the camber is changed in each airfoil and hence so, we can find the change in Cl max and glide ratio which are key factors here. Fluctuation in the glide ratio can be seen, as it increases in NACA 2312 and decreases when going further increase in camber location.There are minor deflections in the stalling angle as that cannot be accurately calculated. Thus changing the camber location increases lift to some extend as further increase in camber value may cause drag. Exercise G: Finding the best values of a NACA airfoils In this section of analysis, we are using the airfoils of wide range with about 0-9%c camber magnitude, with 10-70%c of camber location and with 3-30% thickness range. We are yet to find the best airfoil with Cl max, largest stalling angle and Cl/Cd(Glide ratio). Re = 2000000, M = 0. 00, AOA(alpha) = -4 to 20 degrees with a step of 0. degrees. Graphs: Figure 3. 30: Lift coefficient and Alpha plot Figure 3. 31: Glide ratio and Alpha plot Figure 3. 32 : Glide ratio and Alpha(Re= 200000) Analysis: From the graph 3. 30, we can figure out the maximum Cl value is given by NACA 9318 of about 2. 3. And maximum Cl value when alpha(AOA) is 0 is given by NACA 9718 as per the figure. And hence the airfoil with largest stalling angle also can be seen, as it is NACA 9718. This airfoil though it has less Cl max, it stalls late compared to other airfoils. Its stall angle is going more than 20 degrees.