Monday, September 30, 2019
Organization is a principle of life. We seek the help of organizations to meet our day to day requirements such as to feeding, clothing, educating entertaining, protecting etc. However, organizations are not contemporary creations. Modern society has more organizations which are fulfilling a larger category of societal and personal needs. Organizations are so encompassing in the modern life that it is sometimes easy to overlook that each may be regarded as an entity with a specific contribution and specific goals. Organization is a system of consciously coordinated activities of two or more persons in order to achieve a common goal. It is a system of four major internal interacting components such as: task, people, technology and structure. Organizations are said to be open systems. A number of metaphors can be used to think and explain about the nature of organization. There are eight archetypical metaphors of organization: Machines, Organisms, Brains, Cultures, Political Systems, Psychic Prisons, Flux and Transformation, Instruments of Domination. General Discussion Document: Director of Marketing is proposing to introduce a new process of sales at Superior Sales Corporation for which there will be changes as per the present set up. Staff are likely to resist the change hence some suggestions are placed to reduce the resistance. Organization Structure: Functional superiority can only be achieved if there is enough reliability and focus within each business unit. Elites are those specialized organizational units with closeness to power and having superior capability. Their functions signify a particular organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s typical capability. It is, important that more than one such elite function exist. They need to be complementary so as to make sure that they serve as a check on another. Pluralist are those essential forces that play a important role in decision making. The tension that is created amongst these forces stimulates thoughts and lead to self-improvement and competitiveness, Elite functions bring main strengths to an organization, but must assist with the whole to attain shared results. The stronger and more competent the elites are, the more difficult it is to achieve cross-functional teamwork. The organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s challenge is therefore to ensure that these functions are on a par with that of competition, but at the same time they need to ensure that they respond to market demands by cutting across these functional compartments. Organization Cultures: Organizations are mini-societies that have their own distinctive patterns of culture. Culture is a modern concept used in a social sense to refer broadly to civilization and social system. Its increasing use within the social sciences has led to definitions of varying generality, which develop in a host of ways. Culture is that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, law, morals, custom, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society. There is a growing literature of relevance how organization can be understood as a cultural phenomenon. It is valuable to understand the relationship between culture and industrialization. The greatest strength of this metaphor is that it shows how organizations rests in shared systems of meaning, values, ideologies, beliefs and other social practices that ultimately shape and guide organized action. Reactive and Proactive Changes: Forces for change arise out of an organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s interaction with elements in its external or internal environment. The action of competitors, suppliers, government units or public groups may have substantial impacts on change. Social and cultural factors such as life styles, values or beliefs also lead to important changes. Forces of change may also arise from within an organization depending upon different phases of growth or demands made by different interest groups. Reactive changes occur when these forces make it necessary for a change to be implemented. Proactive change takes place when some forces to change lead an organization to conclude that a particular change is desirable and goes about in initiating the change in a planned manner. The difference between reactive and proactive changes corresponds to that between reflexive behavior and purposive behavior. Reactive change, like reflexive behavior, involves a limited part of the system whereas proactive change and purposive behavior coordinate the parts of the system as a whole. Organizational change has noted that many participants respond with dogged resistance to altering the status quo. In the industrial phenomenon workers have at times sought, in extremely violent fashion, to block the introduction of new technology. Supervisors and lower level managers have balked at large scale projects in job redesign and job enrichment; even low level employees, the presumed beneficiaries of such projects, have fought such changes. Senior managers have fought pitched battles against realignment of corporate structure. Even the proposal by a course coordinator to adopt a different style of presenting the report is capable of touching off a frenzy of defensive tactics to resist change. Such behavior may be either overt or covert. Overt resistance may take the form of employees deliberately failing to do the things necessary for successful change or simply being unenthusiastic about the change. The absence of overt resistance does not mean that resistance is not present, as resistance may be hidden from direct observation. Covert resistance can be more detrimental to change than open resistance because it is harder to identify and eliminate. There are at least two sets of factors which explain the process of resistance. One set relates to the personality and the other relates to the social system. Decreasing the Resistance: Managers who have been responsible for implementation have developed personal perspective consisting of assumption and strong feelings about how change should be introduced. These philosophies fall into two camps, either tops-down or bottoms-up. The Tops-down Strategy: The advocates of this strategy believe that, in general, people resist changes and require direction and structure for their well being as well as to work efficiently and effectively. The basic psychological contract between employees and management, it is assumed, is one in which the employee provides work, effort and commitment and expects in return pay, benefits, and a clear definition of what is expected to be done. It follows that it is the managementÃ¢â¬â¢s responsibility to design the changes it deems appropriate and to implement these thoroughly but quickly by directives from the top. The Bottoms-up Strategy The advocates of this approach profess what to them is a more enlightened view of human nature. They argue that people welcome change and the opportunity to contribute to their own productivity, especially if the change gives them more variety in their work and more autonomy. These managers assume people have a psychological contract which includes an expectation that they be involved in designing change as well as in implementing it. Commitment to change, they say, follows from involvement in the total change process and is essential to successful implementation.
Sunday, September 29, 2019
Patriotic yet hopeful, John F. Kennedy urges the American citizens to act as a community with the rest of the world. Anaphora and abstract words aid him in highlighting his hopes for the pursuit of community in the world. Hortative and imperative sentences were also strongly delivered in his speech to justify what the citizens of America should be doing to make these hopes become a reality. With these devices, the pursuit of a sense of community between America and the rest of the world is desired amongst the American citizens and international audience. Claim) Kennedy reaches out to the citizensÃ¢â¬â¢ emotional sense through abstract words in his clever application of anaphora. Evidence) Ã¢â¬Å"To those old allies whose cultural and spiritual origins we share, we pledge the loyalty of faithful friends.Ã¢â¬ Kennedy delivers passionately these abstract words, such as Ã¢â¬Å"culturalÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"loyaltyÃ¢â¬ to emotionally arouse the citizens in a positive way. He continues by elaborating about and creating pledges with anaphora to further appeal to the American citizensÃ¢â¬â¢ emotions. Ã¢â¬Å"To those old alliesÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"To those new statesÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"To those people in huts and villagesÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"To our sister republics south of our borderÃ¢â¬ , and Ã¢â¬Å"To that world assembly of sovereign states, the United NationsÃ¢â¬ tie the world together through the pledges that follow this anaphora that Kennedy makes in the name of America. Ã¢â¬Å"Let both sides exploreÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"Let both sides, for the first time, formulateÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"Let both sides seek to invokeÃ¢â¬ , and Ã¢â¬Å"Let both sides uniteÃ¢â¬ was declared by Kennedy shortly after to show how Ã¢â¬Å"both sidesÃ¢â¬ should come together also in rhythmic, catchy application of anaphora. Insight) Kennedy was able to captivate the American citizens through their emotional convictions through these rhetorical devices. Anaphora is applied to put great emphasis on these pledges and shift the speech to its climax. Abstract words create an emotional arousal in the citizens that should cause them to act on those pledges. This gets them to pay closer attention and feel more involved. Claim 2) Kennedy exposes his earnest attitude on the matter of having the world come together through his sentence selection of hortative and imperative.
Saturday, September 28, 2019
Project management - Essay Example As recommended by literature (Field and Keller 2007, p.198), the forward pass mode has been used for calculating the ETS for each of the activities. The mode is based on the assumption that all previous activities have been finalised. The following equation has been used in calculating its values: ETSjÃ = max (ETSiÃ + TiÃ Ã¢â¬â i - when an activity is linked to j on an arc from i to j). The values of ETS for each of the activities are provided in a Table 1. Early Finish Time (EFT) is calculated by adding the duration time of each activity to its ETS. The Late Start Time (LTS) is calculated through the use of backward pass mode. It is based on the assumption that the latest time the last event can occur is equal to the last event ETS. The following equation has been used in calculating its values: LTSiÃ = MIN (LTSjÃ - TiÃ -j is an activity linked to i on the path from i to j). The values of LTS for each of the activities are provided in a Table 1. Float The total float in the scheduling provides information on the accepted event delay that will not result in total delay of the whole project (Field and Keller 2007, PMI 2008). It is the difference between the LTS and ETS of each project activity, i.e. Fi = LTSiÃ¢â¬âETSi 3. The project duration and the critical path. The minimum required time for the completion of the project is 80 days. A final step in designing the network is the identification of the critical path. A critical path is made out of the critical activities of the project. An activity is assessed as critical when if delayed, will cause a delay of the whole project duration by an equal amount of time (Field and Keller 2007:183, PMI 2008). For a critical activity: The ETS and the LTS of the activity must be equal at the each node; The Float must be equal to 0; Table 1. Task Name Duration Pred. Early Start Early Finish Late Start Late Finish Float Critical path A 4 - 0 4 0 4 0 yes B 4 A 4 8 4 8 0 yes C 2 A 4 6 14 16 10 no D 6 A 4 10 10 16 6 no E 5 A 4 9 11 16 7 no F 8 B 8 16 8 16 0 yes G 10 C,D,E,F 16 26 16 26 0 yes H 7 G 26 33 26 33 0 yes I 6 H 33 39 33 39 0 yes J 5 H 33 38 34 39 1 no K 7 I,J 39 46 39 46 0 yes L 14 K 46 60 46 60 0 yes M 8 L 60 68 60 68 0 yes N 2 M 68 70 68 70 0 yes O 2 N 70 72 76 78 6 no P 8 N 70 78 70 78 0 yes Q 2 O,P 78 80 78 80 0 yes 1. Different Project Scenarios If the project starts on Monday 21st, May, 2011, what is the earliest date it can be completed using a 5 day working week? For calculating the schedule and the earliest date the project can be completed, the project management tool - Gant chart is used, presented in Appendix 2. The calculation is as follows: the total duration project of the (80) is divided with 5 (working days in the week) = 16 weeks. The earliest date is for completion of the project is Friday, September 2nd, 2011. If the following happened what would be the effect on the duration of the whole project? Explain the reasons. a. A two day delay in activity
Friday, September 27, 2019
Com 425 Week 4 - Essay Example The arguments of the article may seem obvious, but the author has a point. Many people send and receive emails without prior consideration of who is being addressed. There is need to evaluate and assess all parties involved, appreciate their position within the business line and consequently address them accordingly. It is important to uphold mutual respect in such email exchanges. The tips provided seem obvious, but they are equally essential. The author of the article has identified mishaps in sending and receiving of emails between and among communicating parties. Some of the presented cases and points to remember are rather an application of mere common sense. However, the same points are hardly applied b senders and receivers of emails. The article may be analyzed for and against its arguments. Most of the tips however are sensible and should be observed when sending emails. Ignorance of such tips is likely to trigger misunderstandings or conflict of interest in business undertakings when the recipient gets different information from an email other than the one intended by the sender (Heather & Graves, 2011). The only tip that appears kind of absurd is that of watching oneÃ¢â¬â¢s tone when composing an email. This is a hard to determine as the sender composes an email. Due to the ambiguity associated and brought about by the watch your tone tip, the author should have outlined a way through which email senders can evaluate the tone of their composed emails before sending them. The tip should have been elaborated and a guideline to determining oneÃ¢â¬â¢s tone in writing provided. Computer-mediated communication is integral to almost every bit of sending and receiving information. Technological advancements have aided this process with computer communication making a contemporary mode of communication around the world. Knowledge and skills of computer use have highly increased.
Thursday, September 26, 2019
Social Networking - Research Paper Example For instance, about 75% of teenagers in the United States of America visit the Internet daily and social networking forms the biggest part of what they do (Boyd and Ellison ). Social networking sites are widely used by most people to build and maintain relationships; personal or business, and to express their personal ideas and interests concerning the world. Changes in Social Networking Social networks are social structures comprising of persons or organizations that are connected by a single or more different types of interdependency, for instance friendship, common interest, relationships or kinship (Boyd and Ellison). The networks allow people to create public or partial public profiles within a given system, articulate a list of different user that they share connection with and view and traverse the list of connections created by themselves and other users within the system. Social networking sites are very unique in that, apart from allowing users to meet strangers, they also allow them to articulate and make their social networks visible. They provide individuals with an opportunity to maintain their relationships with old friends and to meet new ones as well. The first recognizable social networking site was SixDegrees.com which was started in 1997 (Boyd and Ellison 13). It allowed people to create profiles, list friends they had and in the early 1998s it allowed them to surf their list of friends. These features also existed in some dating and community sites. For instance, AIM and ICQ buddy lists supported lists of friends but the friends were not visible to others. Classmate.com was also another social network which provided people with the opportunity to affiliate with their institutions and surf the networks of other people who were also affiliated to the same institution. However, until recently, it did not provide them with the opportunity to create profiles or list friends (Boyd and Ellison, 13). SixDegree became the first to incorporate these features and promoted itself as a tool to assist people in connecting with others and send messages to them. However, in 2000, SixDegree was incapable of becoming a sustainable business hence failed and its services were closed (Boyd and Ellison, 14). Although by this time the number of people using the Internet was huge, most of them lacked extended networks of friends who were online. They complained that there was nothing much to do after accepting a friend request and most of them were not interested in meeting strangers. From 1997 to 2001, most community tools started to support different types of combinations of profiles and publicly articulated friends. For instance, AsianAvenue and MiGente allowed people to make personal, dating and business profiles in which they could identify friends without seeking permission for the connections (Boyd and Ellison 15). Most of these social network sites were mainly developed for business and dating. For instance, Ryze.com was created in 2 001 to assist people leverage their business networks while Match.com was a profitable dating site (Boyd and Ellison, 16). However, with the creation of Friendster, MySpace and Facebook, the purpose of social networking sites took a new dimension. Social networking sites are today used for business, passing information, education, making friends and dating among others applications. While the Internet has made the world become a global village,
Wednesday, September 25, 2019
Forty Fruity Company - Essay Example The company holds that it provides something for everybody, a reason for its choice of location (AIJN, 2008). The management at the company believes that as much as they do not promise eternal life and instant beauty to their clients, they advise that regularly drinking juice make them feel full of energy. FortyFruity Company runs through delicious, healthy, and nutritious item products as the product line. The company enlists milkshakes, delicious juices, and fruit salads on its menu prepared and presented in an upscale and bright environment. They become brighter, develop smoother skins, a smile that matches the complexion, as well as lose weight. Furthermore, they have a happier and healthier lifestyle. FortyFruity opened its doors to clients in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates in two thousand and two. The company offered an exceptional concept concentrating in provision of fresh fruit salad and fresh juices to the fruit market. The company operates based on three primary goals in the FortyFruity business network. The fundamental goals are outstanding customer service, provision of highest quality fresh juices and fresh fruit salad, as well as affordable prices to all the clients. Since the company aims at ensuring that, a real combination of healthy and tasty drinks reaches the cus tomerÃ¢â¬â¢s table, then the location. The management should ensure that other outlets of the company are in densely populated areas. It will help the company get closer to the customers their clients, which will bring the difference between their accessibility and their competitors. It should add proper means of transporting or serving their customers to wherever they need. Their creamy and tasty shakes ought to have a combination of vanilla yoghurt, milk, and fruits (Groenewald, 2009). Customers consider the creamy shakes special products. The company will, and then squeezes the juice from fresh fruits to make their juice products more marketable. Forty Fruits holds
Tuesday, September 24, 2019
Review of Iraq for Sale - Essay Example After that the plot revolves around how the poorly supervised private interrogators and untrained translators were severely engaged in the prisoner abuse case in Abu Ghraib. The film focuses on the cost of the loss of the traditional military jobs. From any kind of reconstruction jobs to troop and support, from police training to surveillance-everything was controlled by private contractors. Even the film also focuses that a highest part of the government allows such contractors to get the reward with sole-source contract without facing any competition in bidding. The stock of the companies only double and redouble as a result truckers were sent to the battle zone without military escorts. Just to make cost cutting they put untrained people to interrogate at Abu Ghraib. The focus of the film is how such private contractors over bill US government while provided substantial work. They also endanger lives of American soldiers and private citizen altogether. The film also reveals ex-mil itary and ex-government officials to help such contractors in a very unethical manner. The dark background of the reconstruction process of Iraq is shown through the lives of soldier, truck drivers, widows and children.
Monday, September 23, 2019
Reading a Health Record - Coursework Example Abdomen: Benign, Genitalia: normal with red sacral area. Extremities 3+ pitting edema to the knees. Neurological: good and on track. The patient doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t sleep well, has increased pedal edema and no symptoms of coughing or fever. X-ray displays Left pleural effusion, congestive heart failure and pneumonia. In the case of patient assessment with cognitive heart failure, left pleural effusion and pneumonia a dosage of Diurese was administered, four antibiotics, blood cultures and sputum test. The patient is admitted and put on bed rest with oxygen mask. Behavioral problem Ã¢â¬â patient constantly complaining of poor living conditions of the facility, staff and food. She doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t want to sleep in her room. Causal factor appears to having trouble with anger or adjustment problem and severe end-stage cardiomyopathy. Cardiomyopathy is caused by hardening of the arteries responsible for bringing blood into the heart. As the arteries narrow the heart lacks oxygen and gradually it becomes difficult for the heart to pump blood. This condition is diagnosed when heart has irregular heartbeat and fractional ejection is lower. Fractional ejection can be tested through MRI of heart, echocardiogram, cardiac blood pooling image and gated SPECT. Change of certain lifestyle habits that lead to heart failure. Introduction of a Pacemaker to help the heart beat slow down or beat normally. There are surgery procedures like angioplasty and cardiac catheterization that helps good flow of blood in the veins. If a patient fails all treatment then heart transplant would be the only alternative left. (Libby & Braunwald, 2008) The patient was put under the right diagnosis given her symptoms and the treatment of the disease. The patient tested positive for Ischemic cardiomyopathy. The patient displayed all symptoms as projected in the hospital records that matched the
Sunday, September 22, 2019
Fertility decline has repercussions far beyond those of changing population growth rates. Discuss - Essay Example the current situation of Iran and Saudi Arabia as it pertains to the decline, and will also contrast the situation in these countries in respect to demographic behaviour and specific repercussions. Fertility decline has repercussions far beyond those of changing population growth rates. Already clear is the increasing influence of the media in Islamic countries. This is quite obvious from role the media played in IranÃ¢â¬â¢s family planning. It is due to the mediaÃ¢â¬â¢s influence that smaller families became more popular in the first place. Thus, it is quite simple to see that Muslims are becoming more focused on the media, especially as it pertains to family and social developments. Saudi Arabia is another Middle Eastern country that is situated across the Persian Gulf. Saudi Arabia has also experienced a recent decline in fertility, but for different reasons, and there are contrasting political, social, and economic situations between Iran and Saudi Arabia. During the seventies and early eighties, the Islamic Republic of Iran had a pro-natalist policy, meaning that it encouraged families to have larger families. In the late eighties, the Iranian cities began to be seriously overpopulated. This problem directed The Islamic Republic of Iran to take action by way of family planning in 1989, which led to a dramatic drop in fertility. Saudi Arabia has been influenced by economic hardship as well, and the Total Fertility Rate (TFR) has recently begun to decrease. Politically, the Saudi Arabian government has not directly influenced fertility rate in any way, however, indirect political influence is a possibility The increasing education of women in Islamic countries seems to play a large part in the fertility decline. The more educated the woman, the fewer births she is likely to have. Iran has recently begun to increase the amount of education available to women. As the amount of education rises, less births occur. In Arabia, the educational status of women has
Saturday, September 21, 2019
History of Sport Essay In my paper I will be discussing the early form of calisthenics and how the men and women who implemented exercise and fitness into our everyday life. Although there were many disagreements among the early supporters the first sightings of controlled calisthenics are from physical education classes and in schools. Many fought over what was beneficial for a human being and what was considered a waste of time. Many early idealists agreed appaun the body and mind are connected meaning a healthy mind was impossible without an equally healthy body. Eventually as you get closer to the 1900Ã¢â¬â¢s all educators for men at least developed the thinking that physical education particularly calisthenics was a prerequisite for child development. Meaning it was crucial, important almost vital to becoming the most all around successful human able to achieve nothing short of greatness. The belief that by strengthening mans body a man could strengthen his Ã¢â¬ËwillÃ¢â¬â¢. These were thoughts brought up long before the 19th century. Many men who believed in the connection between mind and body thought this was an individual responsibility calisthenics just provided the means. It gave everyone an outlook on the idea of what could come down the road for men who exercised and trained what new levels of success could bring to a mans future just by adding another form of practice into your everyday schedule. In the 1820s American educators began to advocate physical education as well as organize some type of instruction. Many men and educators as time increased and popularity grew for health believed the athlete was the new hero and the new Ã¢â¬Å"human form divineÃ¢â¬ from all three articles the new idea of man became to be the Ã¢â¬Å"aristocrat of characterÃ¢â¬ not an aristocrat at birth. They were trying to say just because you were born into money or born into wealth doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t mean you were going to grow up to be the ideal king everyone expected you to be. You need to be taught, develop character, strength and the will to become the best. Corrupting the mind to control your destiny will lead to the control of your body to un seen lengths of being immortal or superior. Many Americans in the early form of calisthenics became obsessed with health. Tons of men thought the key was strict dieting though the develop of strength training began to take control. As we get closer to the 19th century Americans are troubled with many un explained illnessÃ¢â¬â¢s and disease. Many Ã¢â¬ËirregularÃ¢â¬â¢ doctors at the time emphasized exercise and hygiene rather then the radical remedies people performed on one another for cure by the Ã¢â¬ËregularÃ¢â¬â¢ physicians of the era. During the early part of the civil war for Americans 1861-65 made exercise and physical education a major component in their programmes. Due to the long war some men were forced to deal with anxieties that brought down much of the interest in health and exercise. To balance out the progress already made before the war bringing men together from different sections of the country fighting together as one helped create and spark the interest of sport.
Friday, September 20, 2019
Animals for food and clothing | Debate Living things throughout the world have been abused by loved ones and strangers for no reason at all. Abuse has been apart of our world for as long as we can remember. It is a common thing to hear about in the news and is something that should not be so common. There are many types of abuse in the world, such as emotional, physical, and verbal. It is common to think that only humans suffer from those types of abuse but it is not exactly true. Animals in this world suffer from emotional, verbal, and physical abuse just as much as humans do. It is even safe to say that in some cases they suffer much more then humans do from the abuse they deal with. One thing that humans have over animals when it comes to abuse is the ability to ask for help. Humans can ask family members, or any one else to help them get through the abuse they are dealt with. Animals, on the other hand, have no way to communicate and to ask for help. They have to put up what they dealt with which is truly upsetting an d wrong. This paper is designed to broaden ones perspective on the things animal go through when being raised for food, clothing, and in slaughterhouses. It is also designed to explain how places such as factory farms pollute the world. A. Animals Raised for Food Throughout time animals have been seen as companions and a source of food. The only hope of survival for many, especially in the winter, was to eat meat. Meat gave them protein and was a source of food that was always readily available to be hunted. The days of animals being hunted in their natural environment for food are long gone. For the purpose of this paper it is important to understand how animals were killed for food back in the day and now. Animals are going from living in the wild the way they want to before being killed for food to being mutilated and treated poorly so that the best piece of meat can be obtained. Raising animals for food has become a cruel and wrongful event. These animals are put on special diets where they do not get all the nutrients they need to survive. They are neglected and mutilated. They are genetically manipulated, and put on drugs that cause chronic pain and crippling. These animals live in broken down, disease-ridden and filthy sheds. They live in such confined areas that it is impossible to move or get comfortable. They have to travel long distances in any kind of weather imaginable to get to the slaughterhouses. They have to travel these gruesome trips without food or water because it is too much trouble for the owner of the factory farms to supply food and water for the animals before they die (PETA). Cows are one of the animals that are killed most often for their meat. Dairy cows, for example, have to deal with being pregnant for their whole life so that they will always be able to produce milk. They have to basically go through a never ending cycle of being pregnant and giving birth. They are kept chained to the barn stall for the entire time that they are able to give milk. Once they are emptied of all their milk they are sent to the slaughterhouse so that their meat can be used for hamburgers (Global Action Network). Calves have a different fate. Veal calves have the worst life of them all. They have to stand in a 22 by 54 crate which is their permanent home. In this cage they cannot turn around or lay down. The purpose of these crates is to prevent movement so that the calfs muscles are tender. The more tender the muscles, the more gourmet the veal is. These calves are also put on special diets. They are fed milk substitutes that do not contain iron or other essential vitami ns. Up to fourteen weeks after birth these calves are slaughtered and the veal is sent to stores so we can eat it(veal: a cruel meal). Horses are an animal that we humans would never think would be abused for food. Yet people around the world are taking an animal that is meant to be a companion to humans and slaughtering them for their meat. In the United States of America (USA) it is against the law in most states to slaughter horses, but there is still some states that are allowed to do it, Texas and Illinois are examples. These horses are kept in extreme conditions and not cared about. They are sent to the slaughterhouses in trailers that should fit four horses but are stuffed with so many more. The horse meat is used for humans to eat, and is used in dog food. Horses also used to be killed to be used to make glue. Most of the people that live in the areas where slaughtering horses is legal think it is wrong to murder horses and do not want to take part in it. They also find that eating horse meat is repulsive and just wrong (SHARK). In Canada today there is about 18 million pigs being raised for pork. Sows, which are mother pigs, live a life like those of a dairy cow. They endure constant pregnancies and births, reaching a number of about 8 to 10 births in their life time. They live their entire life in farrowing crates which are just bigger then them and that have no bedding. They live on a concrete floor and have to deal with birth and pregnancy on that cold dirty floor. The piglets live in the farrowing crates for 2 weeks then are moved to a feeder pen. Some of the piglets, about 15%, die off due to the poor living conditions they have to deal with. The others are sent to be castrated and have their tails cut off, teeth ground, and ears notched, which is all done without any pain medicine used. The piglets live in stalls that have manure pits underneath them; this means they are basically living in their own feces for their entire life. They live up to they reach market weight which is 250 pounds and then are shipped to slaughterhouses (Global Action Network). Chickens are also commonly raised for food and by-products. Chickens raised for eggs are kept in wired cages measuring 40cm by 45 cm. These cages are not just to hold one chicken, but up to six chickens. The lack of space prevents the chickens from doing anything such as moving or stretching out their wings. Due to the conditions they live in, 1 in 5 chickens die. The other hens are killed after close to 2 years. Broiler chickens live in dark sheds that are extremely crowded. Living in these conditions cause most of the chickens to have hysteria, which causes stampeding and suffocation. The stress the chickens are put under can even bring upon cannibalism. These chickens go through this life for a few years before being sent to the slaughterhouses. (global action network) B. Animals Raised for Clothing Animals have been used for clothing for as long as one can remember. The pioneers of this nation once hunted and killed animals but when they did this they used every part of the animal possible. They ate the meat and they took the fur and used it to make clothing so that they could stay warm. It is important to understand that those days are sadly over. Now animals are being raised just for the purpose of their furs and/or leathers. Millions of animals are killed every year for the clothing industry (PETA). These animals endure great suffering so humans can have that nice leather jacket or fur coat to wear. Fur farms are not a four star place for animals. The animals are kept in wire cages with four to five animals in each cage. These animals live in filthy cages and live lives not much better then those that live in factory farms. The owners of these fur farms do not want to put much money into them. They tend to want to keep the money for themselves and leave all the barns to ruin and fall apart. They also tend to pick the cheapest and cruellest ways to murder the animals for their fur (PETA). There are many fur farms in Canada that have been around since the beginning of the 1900s. These farms raise fox, mink, racoon, marten, and lynx. (Canadian Encyclopedia). Canadian fur farms have to operate under certain Codes of Practice developed by the Provincial and Federal Government. (appendix) (candianÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦) The most common and valuable Canadian fur bearer is the mink (The Canadian Encyclopaedia). The mink is a member of the weasel family and was first raised in the Canada during 1866-67 (Canadian Encyc. P.1). Mink are aggressive and have to be held with a certain care because they tend to bite often and have thick leather mitts. At first the mink are housed in wire cages with two or three of them per cage. Once they become adults they are housed one mink per cage (ency p.2). These minks are properly fed their meat based diets and also the vitamins the need to survive (Ency. P. 3). They also receive proper bedding and nesting to survive (ency. P.4). When the time comes the mink are killed by carbon monoxide poisoning and then skinned for their furs. This type of practice, where the animal is given some dignity, is only given in Canada and not all animals are as lucky. Animals in China are not so lucky. Most of the fur that is found in stores comes from Chinese fur farms due to the fact that China is one of the largest distributers of furs. Back in 2005, an investigation was done by the Human Society International in the Hebei province of Eastern China. The investigation by the Human Society International (2005) brought about the following evidence Investigators witnessed a significant number of animals that were still alive when the skinning process began-starting with a knife at the rear of the belly and ending with the fur being pulled over the animals head. After the skin was removed, investigators taped animals being thrown on a pile of other carcasses. These animals were still breathing, had a heartbeat, and continued moving and blinking for between five to ten minutes after their skin had been ripped from their bodies. Before these animals even go through the skinning process they are forced to live in cramped cages with more then one animal in each cage. These cages are tiny enough and the more animals that are in it the more anxiety that builds up in the animals. They pace, nod, and circle their heads in such a way that shows they are helpless and scared.(human international). These animals are forced to live outdoors in all types of weather conditions. The mothers that give birth often kill their litters before they have the chance to live the life that she is going through.(PETA) Leather is one of the most common clothing elements that all humans have. Leather made in Canada and the USA is made in conditions that are healthier for the animals then the farms in India. India is a larger supplier of the worlds leather. Cows in India go through the process of having their throats cut and the skin ripped off their bodies while still alive (PETA). Leather is not a by-product of cows. It is a way of adding to the value of a dead animal at the slaughterhouse and adds support to the industry.(animal equality). Humans do not really understand how much leather is apart of their lives and the pain and anguish that the cows go through to give them that leather, if it is from India that is. Wool is another common element used in clothing from animals. Most people think that the wool from sheep is obtained by shaving the sheep down. That is the proper safe and proper way to take care of the sheep and get the wool but is only done in countries such as Canada. Most of the wool that is used in clothing is from countries such as Australia. The domestically raised sheep are bred in such a way to allow them to produce more wool then needed which causes illness to the sheep (animal equality). The sheep then undergo mulesing which is a form of shearing that causes large amounts of skin and flesh to come off the body with the wool. This is all done without the presence of pain killers for them. These sheep are packed onto ships to from Australia to places such as East India. If they survive the voyage they are dragged off the trucks by their ears and legs and beaten until they dead and then skinned for their wool. (PETA) C. Slaughterhouses The slaughterhouse is the last stop on the journey of life for an animal being raised for food and clothing. It is the end to their suffering in some ways but brings upon a horrific experience for them as well. The animals that painfully made it through the hardships in the factory/fur farms and then the journey to the slaughterhouse without food or water are dealt their last leg here. They go through being skinned and dismembered alive so that their meat and furs can be sold for human use. Slaughterhouses pick the easiest and cheapest ways to kill the animals. These ways include suffocation, electrocution, slicing of throats, and beating. After they go through these methods they are then hung upside down so that all the blood can drain out of their bodies, this is sometimes done even when the animal is still alive. Slaughterhouses have employees quitting left and right because the conditions are so bad and they dont want to torture the animals like that. Because of this there are lo w-paid workers with no experience at all killing the animals. This means the animals are going through more pain then ever because the employees do not clearly know what they are doing (Global Action Network). D. Pollution Caused by Factor Farms Factory farms do a great deals harm on the environment and communities surrounding them. Due to living in small confined areas and having so much live stock in one barn the owners do not want to clean our the manure caused by the animals. Therefore it is funnelled down below into a holding tank until emptied. These holding tanks are usually poorly made and break often leaking the feces into the water system which then harms the citizens in the neighbouring townships (NRDC para1). These factory farms also emit harmful gasses, such as ammonia, into the air so that surrounding townships breathe it in. Factory farms emit greenhouse gasses into the air which cause the ozone to deteriorate and put harm on the whole world. It has been found that towns around factory farms have shown an increase in chronic sickness, brain damage, cancer, poisoned waterways, and death plagues. In conclusion, there is so much that needs to be done to help stop and prevent the terrible things that animals have to go through. It is understandable to wear leather shoes or eat meat but there is an alternative to everything. Having two days a week where meat is cut out of daily meals saves a few more animals and brings down the pollutants released into the atmosphere. Even getting furs and leathers from places such as in Canada where the animal is treated with the dignity they deserve is a step up. When purchasing meats and clothing made from animals be sure to read the labels and know where you are getting it from before purchasing it. Humans can ask for help when being abused, animals cannot. Just looking into what you purchase to make sure the animal was treated with dignity is giving a voice to that animal who could not speak for itself and making a difference. Antigone and The House of The Spirits | Analysis Antigone and The House of The Spirits | Analysis An analysis of the portrayal of social conflicts and political conflicts in Antigone and The House of The Spirits. A conflict is a dispute between thoughts, ideas, principles or people that arises from a difference of opinions. It has been seen throughout the history of this world that there have always been political conflicts and social conflicts amongst people to bring a change in their lives or nation. This is partly the reason why many authors have portrayed political and social conflicts in their books for example in The House of the Spirits by Isabel Allende and Antigone by Sophocles. In this essay my aim is to explore how political and social conflicts characterize and develop the themes of both the books. Starting with the book The House of the Spirits, we can clearly see from the beginning that there is a struggle between social classes for example we see conflicts between the patrÃ ³n and the peasants of Tres MarÃ as since the patrÃ ³n thinks the peasants are not worth anything and cannot take responsibility of any work. This is shown when Esteban once says, What they dont realize is that poor people are completely ignorant and uneducated. Theyre like children, they cant handle responsibility. How could they know whats best for them? (The House of the Spirits Society and Class quotes) This shows us that there was a social conflict between the two classes namely, the upper class and the lower class. This kind of social conflict was mainly brought out by the author in the book through omniscient narration where the author communicated to the reader about the thoughts and feelings of the characters at a certain point in time. This helped us to understand the feelings and views of t he character better. Another social conflict was Trueba family versus the Garcia family. This conflict is brought out as the cycle of violence in the book. As it is seen in the book that the patrÃ ³n rapes Pancha Garcia whose grandson rapes the granddaughter of Esteban. This is shown when Alba says; Afterward the grandson of the woman who was raped repeats the geture with the granddaughter of the rapist, and perhaps forty years from now my grandson will knock Garcias granddaughter (Allende) We also see the portrayal of social conflicts in Antigone through the clashes between the family members that is to say the family conflicts. As we know they are differences in opinions between Antigone and her sister, Ismene and also between Antigone and Creon. We also see clashes between Creon and his son Haemon. Firstly the conflict between Antigone and Ismene brought out two contrasting women of that time. Ismene who was portrayed by the author as an ideal woman of that time and while Antigone was portrayed as the exact opposite of Ismene. This can be shown in one of the dialogues where Ismene says, If we break the law and die for it, Our shame will last forever. Women are not made to battle men. (Sophocles) To which Antigone responds by saying, Youve made your choice but I will bury him, And I will welcome death in doing it. (Sophocles) From this we can clearly see that Ismene is timid and is scared to break the laws made by the men who she thinks are superior to her. Whereas Antigone is of an assertive nature and is not scared to break the laws so as to obey the gods and respect the dead. The conflict between Ismene and Antigone was brought out through the structure of the dialogues. Throughout the argument we mostly see long speeches from Antigone while Ismene just speaks her point in one line. This shows us that Antigone was confident of her stand and was not going to back out of her plan but on the other hand Ismene was not interested with what Antigone said and thought she inferior and therefore should not break the law. Likewise we are also aware of another family conflict between Creon and his son Haemon. Haemon who wanted to save Antigone but is opposed by his father Creon and I think this conflict foreshadows the death of Haemon in the play and also it brings pot the theme of love since Haemon goes against his father to save her life. The foreshadowing of Haemons death is brought out through the following quotes in Antigone, Creon: She will die before you marry her. Haemon: If she must die, she will not die alone. (Sophocles) This shows us that Haemon was actually threatening his father, Creon that if he killed Antigone then he would kill himself. According to me the result of this conflict was actually the death of Antigone and eventually Haemon. This is shown when Creon says; Enough. No words. Youll pay for taunting me. Bring her out. Bring the woman here. The bridegroom waits for her to stand beside him. Here she will stand. To die. And we will let you watch. (Sophocles) I believe Creon at that point was angered by Haemon and decided to punish Antigone as soon as possible which eventually also led to the death of Haemon as a result of the conflict. Furthermore there was another social conflict in Antigone which was the dispute between Antigone and Creon. According to me this conflict brought out theme of male chauvinism since Creon couldnt admit that a woman had broken the law and was going against the men. Also I think this conflict brought out the fight between the laws made by Creon and the laws of god. This can be seen in the play when Antigone says; Your law. Not the sacred law. The gods. That rule among the dead have issued no Such proclamation. A man cannot erase The laws unwritten. Cannot change the unchanging (Sophocles) Similarly there is a portrayal of a male chauvinist environment in The House of the Spirits which also brings out a social conflict. As we all know that Nivea used to hold rallies with other fellow women to fight for the right of women. The fact that it was a male chauvinist environment is be proved when FÃ ©rula say in the book that, I would like to have been born a man, so I could leave too (Allende) The portrayal of this conflict (male chauvinism) in both books brings out two similar characters in both books and they are Creon and Esteban Trueba. They both believe that women are supposed to look after the house and raise children and should not be include in the so called matters of the men. The authors of both books bring out this conflict through the use of strong emotive language for example; Creon: If I must fall, a man will bring me down, Let no one say, Creon gave his power to a woman (Sophocles) Sophocles brings out strong emotions of Creon through this quote and it shows us that Creon cannot accept defeat from a woman. Their where also political conflicts in both books for example the use of in Antigone the brothers of Antigone died while fighting with each other for power. Also in The House of the Spirits we see a lot of attention drawn towards political conflicts. In The House of the Spirits we see a political conflict between the Conservative party and the socialist. The writer seems to bring out the coup dÃ ©tat that took place in Chile through this conflict. Political conflicts in The House of the Spirits begin to appear in the second chapter and soon take the central plot in the book. (The House of the Spirits Theme of Politics) The political conflicts in the House of the Spirits were sometimes in the book brought out through the songs of Pedro Tercero for example the song of the hens getting united to defeat the fox which Pedro Tercero used to sing to tell people of Tres MarÃ as. He used this song to explain to the people the power unity has; If the hens can overcome the fox, what about human beings? (Allende) I think the political conflicts in The House of the Spirits led to the family conflicts in the Trueba family because we see Jamie and Alba supporting the socialists and going against their father Esteban. This can be seen when Jamie says, The socialists are going to win (Allende) even after knowing that his father is in full support for the conservative party. In the same way the thirst for power goes back many centuries and can also be seen in Sophocles book Antigone which starts with a background of two brothers dying for power. This brings out the theme of death from the beginning and somehow this foreshadows the tragic end to the lives of the characters in Antigone. According to me another political dilemma was that Creon had to choose between his family members and his political duty. But it can also be argued that Creon was arrogant to accept his mistake and welcome the law of the gods but instead he did not do that and made it a man versus a woman quarrel. Creons arrogance can be shown when he says; Then join them there and love them both in hell. No woman rules this kingdom while I live To sum up I think political and social conflicts both lead to families falling apart in both books and resumes the cycle of violence in both books which bring out the theme of death in both books.
Thursday, September 19, 2019
Food in Mary Rowlandson's The Sovereignty and Goodness of God "Food is a medium for life, a dynamic of life, and an expression of the whims, joys, terrors, and histories in life. Food, more than anything else, is life." - Anonymous Neither life nor culture can be sustained without food. On a very basic level, food is fundamentally essential for life, not simply to exist, but also to thrive. A means by which carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, nutrients, and calories are introduced into the body, food is a mechanism of survival. However, on a more abstract level, food is also fundamentally essential for culture by establishing its perimeters and dimensions and in shaping its authenticity and character. Food becomes the carbohydrates and calories that maintain any culture. Food offers a dynamic cross-section of man's tendencies. "Nourishment, a basic biological need," argues anthropologist Sidney Mintz, "becomes something else because we humans transform it symbolically into a system of meaning for much more than itself" (7). By examining food consumption and preparation, much is discoverd regarding the intricacies of culture. The preparation and consumption of food in Puritan society are reflect ed in Mary Rowlandson's The Sovereignty and Goodness of God. Rowlandson's view of food and admissions of hunger in the infancy of her captivity cast a revealing light upon the roots of her conceptions and ideas about food and, more generally, about her culture's conceptions and ideas about food. As the conflict between her soul and her stomach raged over food, Rowlandson's attitudes toward the Native Americans' preparation and consumption of food reflect the socialization of the Puritans to believe that every meal ... ... Mary Caroline. The Days of the Pilgrim Fathers. Detroit: Singing Tree Press, 1970. [secondary source] Geree, John. "The Character of an Old English Puritan, or Non-Conformist." 17th Century Primary Source Documents <http://www.orst.edu/dept/history/primary17.htm> Accessed 21 May 2001. [primary source] Goodwin, Lorinda B. R. An Archeology of Manners: The Polite World of the Merchant Elite of Colonial Massachusettes. Boston: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, 1999. [secondary source] Mintz, Sidney W. Tasting Food, Tasting Freedom: Excursions into Eating, Culture, and the Past. Boston: Beacon Press, 1996. [secondary source] Mizruchi, Susan L. "The Place of Ritual in Our Time." American Literary History 12, no. 3 (2000): 467-492. [secondary source] Rowlandson, Mary. The Sovereignty and Goodness of God. Boston: Bedford Books, 1997.
Wednesday, September 18, 2019
By reading a certain print texts, readers are manipulated into accepting or rejecting additional texts. The short story Ã¢â¬Å"The Altar of the FamilyÃ¢â¬ written by Michael Welding shares many comparisons with the feature article Ã¢â¬Å"Boys to MenÃ¢â¬ written by Stephen Scourfield, and by reading one the reader can make clear understanding of the other. Symbolism, genre and certain values and attitudes are present in both the texts and will be further examined in the following essay to show that a readers understanding of particular print texts is shaped by the reading of previous texts. By reading Ã¢â¬Å"The Altar of the FamilyÃ¢â¬ the reader understands that to become a man a boy has to pass certain Ã¢â¬Å"tests or ordealsÃ¢â¬ in order to gain Ã¢â¬Å"rights of passageÃ¢â¬ to manhood. This process is clearly shown in the print text Ã¢â¬Å"The Altar of the FamilyÃ¢â¬ . David, the boy in Ã¢â¬Å"The Altar of the FamilyÃ¢â¬ is under constant pressure from his father to become Ã¢â¬Å"more manlyÃ¢â¬ . His father constantly demoralises him and on one occasion brands him a Ã¢â¬Å"lily-livered poofterÃ¢â¬ . The symbolism of using such words is evident in this text as lilies are something that David admires yet are extremely Ã¢â¬Å"girlishÃ¢â¬ in the eyes of his father, a man. In an effort to please his father David took it upon himself to kill a possum that had become a menace to his father, this would make him a man, this would grant him his Ã¢â¬Å"rite of passageÃ¢â¬ . The possum eventually appeared and was described as David would describe his much- loved lilies, Ã¢â¬Å"soft, beautiful, white in the moonlightÃ¢â¬ . The symbolism of using the same words to describe the possum like the much loved lilies shows the reader that it is against DavidÃ¢â¬â¢s morals to kill the animal of such beauty but if such a task has to be completed to gain manhood then so be it. Much to his dismay he shot the possum and in his own mind was a murderer but in the eyes of his father he would be a man. When looking for the dead possum the next morning his father greets him by saying, Ã¢â¬Å"WhatÃ¢â¬â¢ve you lost old man?Ã¢â¬ and this shows the reader that David has now become a man in his fathers eyes. By reading Ã¢â¬Å"The Altar of the FamilyÃ¢â¬ the reader is led to believe that certain tasks have to be completed in order to gain manhood.
Tuesday, September 17, 2019
To measure the functional result after flexor sinew fix with application of simple postoperative protocols that advice early controlled motion taking to heighten intrinsic sinew healing, minimising adhesion formation, and therefore bettering the functional result. METHODS. These survey was between June 2005 and May 2008, as a prospective survey that included 225 instances with flexor sinew hurts. All the injured sinews were repaired utilizing the Modified Kessler Ã¢â¬Ës technique, so splinting of the carpus and metacarpophalangeal articulations was done in 20 and 40 degree flexure severally, and dynamic splinting of fingers was done. Early motion was induced get downing from the first postoperative twenty-four hours with hurting control. Evaluation of the result was assessed by the manus clasp strength and by mensurating the sum of active flexure of proximal and distal interphalangeal articulations. RESULTS. 11 patients did n't go to for follow up and were excluded from the concluding analysis. 205 patients out of 214 ( 95.8 % ) achieved an first-class to good functional class in the concluding result, while 9 patients ( 4.2 % ) achieved a just to hapless result. Merely 3 patients experient tendon rupture ( 1.4 % ) . Average follow up period was 5.2 months. CONCLUSION. The usage of proper technique for fix of flexor sinews of the manus, followed by early controlled motions as a method of pick that on scientific background should heighten intrinsic sinew healing is ; executable, safe, and has a good functional result.Cardinal words: flexor tendon Ã¢â¬â hurtIntroductionThere are many different protocols and research attacks to tendon direction. With so many picks, today Ã¢â¬Ës manus healer must understand non merely what those picks are, but besides why and when to utilize them. The most of import difference between the assorted attacks to mend postoperative digital flexor sinew, is rehabilitation and how the repaired sinew is treated during the first three to six hebdomads, in the earliest phases of mending. The specializer who does non understand how current techniques evolved is ill-equipped to plan the appropriate intervention for a given patient ( 1 ) . Tendon fix began to be accepted on 1752, when Albercht Von Haller, a Swiss research worker concluded that sinewy construction was insensitive to trouble. In 1959, Verdan described the zones of flexor tendon fixs of the manus. In 1967. Potenza studied tendon mending based on extrinsic fibroblastic invasion and proliferation with adhesion formation. Lundborg explored intrinsic sinew mending based on synovial fluid nutrition. Strickland, Manske, Gelberman, and others studied the delicate balance between mending and tendon gesture, with respect to growing factors, fibronectin, the ration of extrinsic to intrinsic sinew healing, tendon sutura techniques, strength of fix, and the consequence of early active postoperative gesture on result ( 2 ) . The contentions in tendon fix may be as follows ; in the initial phases of sinew healing, the formation of functionally weak tissue can non defy the tensile forces that allow early active scope of gesture, and so, there is a hazard of rupture of the fix. In the same clip, immobilisation of the figure may advance healing, but necessarily consequences in the formation of adhesions between the sinew and tendon sheath, which leads to clash and decreased glide. Besides, lading during the healing stage is still critical to avoid these adhesions, but once more, it involves an increased hazard of rupture of the repaired sinew. It is clear that understanding the biological science and organisation of the native sinew and the procedure of morphogenesis of tendon tissue is necessary to better current intervention modes ( 3 ) . In our work, we managed flexor sinew hurts ; by one of the most popular sinew fix methods ( modified Kessler technique ) , so leting for early passive and controlled early active motion of the figures taking for heightening the intrinsic sinew healing and minimising adhesions formation, therefore giving the best opportunity for an first-class functional recovery for the repaired sinews.Flexor Tendon AnatomyThe flexor sinews of the carpus, flexor wrist radialis ( FCR ) and flexor wrist ulnaris ( FCU ) are strong and thick sinews, while the flexor pollicis longus ( FPL ) has a distal musculus belly. The flexor sinews of the fingers are arranged into three beds ; flexor digitorum supericialis ( FDS ) sinews of the center and ring fingers are most superficial ; superficialis sinews of the index and small fingers are in the center, while the deepest bed is composed of the FPL and the four sinews of the flexor digitorum profundi ( FDP ) . There is frequently a tendon faux pas from the FDP of the index to the FPL, which may necessitate deletion to forestall post-surgical complications ( 4, 5 ) .Clinical Tendon Zones of VerdanThese zones are used to depict flexor tendon hurts of the manus and carpus ; Zone I: extends from the finger tip to the midportion of the in-between phalanx ( the Green Zone ) . Zone II: extends from the midportion of the in-between phalanx to the distal palmar fold ( No-Man Ã¢â¬Ës Land or the Red Zone ) . Zone III: extends from the distal fold to the distal part of the transverse carpal ligament. Zone IV: overlies the transverse carpal ligament ( carpal tunnel ) . Zone V: extend from the carpus fold to the degree of the musculotendinous junction of the flexor sinews. Zones III, IV, and V constitute the Yellow Zone ( 6 ) .Pulleys Ã¢â¬Ë systemPulleies are inspissating along flexor sheaths lined with synovial membrane. They improve biomechanics of flexor sinews by forestalling bowstringing of sinews during flexure. Fingers have 5 annulate blocks and 3 cruciate blocks. Annular blocks are A1 at metacarpophalangeal articulation ( MPJ ) , A2 over the proximal phalanx, A3 at the proximal interphalangeal articulation ( PIPJ ) , A4 over in-between phalanx, and A5 at the distal interphalangeal articulation ( DIPJ ) . A2 and A4 are the most of import to forestall bowstringing. Cruciate blocks are between the annulate blocks, they are thinner and less biomechanically of import than annulate blocks. The pollex has 2 annulate blocks ; A1 at MPJ, A2 at interphalangeal articulation, and one oblique block, which is an extension of adductor pollicis fond regar d that lies between A1 and A2 and it is the most of import pollex block to forestall bowstringing ( 7 ) .Nutrition of Flexor sinewsTendons have two beginnings of nutrition, an internal beginning provided by vascular perfusion, and external beginning provided by synovial fluid ( 6 ) . Tendons without synovial sheath receive blood supply from longitudinal anastomotic capillary system, that receive segmental blood supply from ; Vessels in the perimysium and vass at the bony interpolations. The beginning of foods for the flexor sinews with synovial sheath is either ; vascular perfusion and synovial fluid diffusion. The segmental blood supply of the sinews is from vass from muscular subdivisions in the forearm, vass in the environing connective tissue via the mesotenon conduit Ã¢â¬Å" vincula Ã¢â¬ , vass from the bone, at the interpolation, and vass from periosteum near interpolation ( 8 ) . In the last decennaries, many surveies of synovial perfusion of the flexor sinews within the synovial sheath have been done ( 9 ) . Studies demonstrates that synovial fluid perfusion was more effectual than vascular perfusion, so when the sinew was isolated from its vascular connexions, diffusion could supply the entire nutrition demands to all sections. Synovial diffusion besides contributes in sinew healing as the longitudinal sinew vasculature may be easy occluded by suturas, therefore sheath fix or Reconstruction is indicated.Tendon MendingThree stages of sinew healing are present ; Inflammatory stage ( first hebdomad ) , Proliferative stage ( 2nd-4rth hebdomad ) , and Remodeling stage ( 2nd-6th month ) . Tendons exhibits two types of healing, with different ratios. Extrinsic healing: Fibroblasts migrate from the sheath into the injured site, and besides from adhesion. This type healing is enhanced by postoperative immobilisation ( 7 ) . This explains why immobilisation protocols to reconstruct tendon congruousness consequence in cicatrix formation at the fix site, instead than a additive hempen array, and peripheral adhesions that limit tendon motions ( 10 ) . Intrinsic healing: Tendon cells can migrate across closely approximated terminals and heal with foods from synovial fluid. Peripheral adhesions do non take part in intrinsic sinew mending. Although some writers believed that adhesions formation is indispensable in sinew healing, several surveies demonstrated the intrinsic ability of flexor sinews to mend via foods supplied by diffusion from the synovial fluid ( 11 ) .Patients AND METHODSThis prospective survey was performed in the Emergency Unit, Kasr Al-Aini Hospital ( Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University ) in the period between 6/2005 and 5/2008. Table ( 1 ) shows the human ecology of the included patients. The figure of instances included was 225 instances enduring from flexor sinew hurts in zones I, II, III, IV, and V, but 11 instances were excl uded from the concluding analysis as they were non present during the follow up period ( table 2 ) . Included instances were instances with flexor sinew hurts showing within less than 24 hours from the hurt. Exclusion standards were ; kids below 12 old ages for expected bad conformity, late presentation, infected, contused and crushed lesions, and shocked poly-trauma patients.Table ( 1 ) Demographic distribution of patientsNumber of patients214Sexual activity ( Male & A ; Female severally )153 ( 75 % ) & A ; 61 ( 25 % )Age in old agesBetween 12 and 63 old agesManual Workers122 ( 60 % )Table ( 2 ) Distribution harmonizing to zone hurtsZone I injury33 ( 15 % )Zone II hurt48 ( 22 % )Zone III hurt36 ( 17 % )Zone IV hurt38 ( 18 % )Zone V hurt59 ( 28 % )Entire214 First assistance was done for every instances, including guaranting of equal general position of the patients ( airway, take a breathing, circulation ) , followed by IV analgesia, IV antibiotics ( individual dosage of 3rd coevals cephalosporine ) , booster dosage of antitetanic anatoxin was administrated. Clinical appraisal of the manus hurt ( vascularity, diagnosing of injured sinews and associated injures ) . The lesion was washed by unfertile saline, bovidone I, IV explored under either general anesthesia or IV Bier Ã¢â¬Ës block, and a pneumatic compression bandage was indispensable portion in all instances ( with monitoring of the tourniquet clip ) . Minimal handling of the sinews was deliberately done. Tendons were repaired by nucleus suturas by modified Kessler Ã¢â¬Ës technique utilizing 4-0 polypropene suturas and peripheral suturas. The carpus was splinted in 20 grade of flexure, and metacarpophalangeal articulation at 40 grade of flexure. Dynamic splint was applied to th e fingers utilizing rubber bands. Early passive and active motions were done with the control of hurting. Motions started from the first postoperative twenty-four hours, hourly, for 10 repeats of active extension and flexure of fingers while the manus is in the splinted place, and passively the DIPJ is so to the full flexed. Curative ultrasound was applied for 19 instances to heighten intrinsic healing. Follow up was done twice hebdomadally for one month, and so weekly for two months, so every month. Follow up ranged between 6 months and 18 months.ConsequenceFrom the 225 patients, 11 patients did n't go to the follow up period and were excluded from the concluding analysis. All the included patients continue with the follow up for at least 3 months, while merely 193 completed a period of follow up of 6 months. So, the concluding analysis was based on consequences recorded after 3 months of follow up. Average follow up period was 5.2 months. Evaluation of the result was based upon manus map, and this is the of import issue in tendon fix, and besides it is impossible to measure the sum of intrinsic healing to the sum of intrinsic healing in a life homo. So, the consequences of the fix were assessed by clinical rating of sinews Ã¢â¬Ë map. This was done by measuring the manus clasp strength and by proving for the sum of active flexure of the distal interphalangeal articulations and proximal interphalangeal articulations, so deducting the sum of active extension shortage at these articulations during active extension. The consequences were graded as Angstrom: excellent ( & gt ; 132 grade entire gesture ) , B: good ( 88- 131 grade ) , C: just ( 44- 87 grade ) , and D: hapless ( & lt ; 44 grade ) . In patients with multiple flexor sinew hurts, the norm of the concluding functional result of all sinews was done. Concluding manus clasp strength norm was 80 % in comparing to the un-injured manus, with 15 % shortage, that is after taking in history the 10 % regulation. In measuring the concluding result, 205 out of 214 ( 94.1 % ) achieved an first-class to good functional class ( A or B ) , while 9 patients ( 4.2 % ) achieved a just to hapless result ( C or D ) . Functional result of grade C or D was related more to district II hurt ( 4 instances, stand foring 8.3 % of zone II hurts ) . The other 5 instances of grade C or D functional result were as follows ; two instances of zone I, two instances in zone V and a individual instance in zone IV. That Ã¢â¬Ës average 6 % of hurts in zone I, 3.4 % of hurts in zone V, and 2.6 % of hurts in zone IV. All instances of zone III hurt had either rate A or B functional result. Minor complications related to the tegument lesion and that did non impact the concluding result occurred in 12 patients ( 5.6 % ) , that Ã¢â¬Ës including mild wound infection that was self-controlled, haematoma that may hold required aspiration, hypertrophic cicatrix in which Si spot was applied, and an disciple cicatrix occurred in individual patient. Entire failure of the fix occurred merely in 3 patients, whom experienced tendon rupture ( 1.4 % ) and necessitate re-suturing ( two instances in zone II and one instance in zone I, and concluding result of such instances was added to the old consequences ) .Table ( 3 ) Final result harmonizing to the injured zone.Injured zoneEntire figureExcellent- Good resultFair- hapless resultZone I( Green ) 33 ( 14 % ) 31 ( 93.9 % ) 2 ( 6.1 % )Zone II( Red ) 48 ( 23 % ) 44 ( 92.7 % ) 4 ( 8.3 % )Zone III( Yellow ) 36 ( 17 % ) 36 ( 100 % )Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âZone IV( Yellow ) 38 ( 18 % ) 37 ( 97.4 % ) 1 ( 2.6 % )Zone V( Yellow ) 59 ( 28 % ) 57 ( 96.6 % ) 2 ( 3.4 % )Entire214 ( 100 % ) 205 ( 95.8 % ) 9 ( 4.2 % )DiscussionTreatment of sinew hurts is an of import portion of manus surgery pattern worldwide. Adhesion formation, rupture of the fixs, stiffness of finger articulations, remain the chief jobs of primary sinew fixs. Tendon hurts happen in all parts of the manus and forearm, but the sinew hurts in the digital flexor sheath country ( zones 1 and 2 ) are the most hard to handle and stay a focal point of both clinical attending and basic probes ( 12 ) . There is now ample grounds to confirm several of import facts. As an illustration, intrasynovial sinews receive their nutrition via both intrinsic vascular supply and perfusion of synovial fluid. This means that the sinews do non necessitate to organize adhesions to environing sinews to have nutrition adequate for mending ( 1 ) . In our survey, we designed a program for mending injured flexor sinews that was wholly based on the background known from the physiology of sinew healing. We included instances in which we could execute primary sinews fix, as there is no uncertainty that primary sinews repair gives better functional recovery than secondary tendon fix or transplant ( 13 ) . In respect the timing of fix, Swiontkowski, 2001 ( 6 ) stated that acute sinew hurts require pressing attention, ideally within 24 hours of hurt. Zidel, 2007 ( 4 ) considered that primary fix can be done within 24 hours and considered delayed primary fix with the 1st twenty-four hours up to the fourteenth twenty-four hours. In our survey, we included instances that were showing to the exigency unit within less than 24 hours. Assortment of methods may be used for tendon fix, but the modified Kessler fix is still widely used for the nucleus sinew sutura ( 14 ) . Besides, modified Kessler fix is a good illustration of high-strength, low-friction fixs that minimizes clash between the sinew and flexor sheath while keeping sufficient strength to the fix ( 15 ) . We used the modified Kessler fix in all of our instances as the criterion nucleus sutura in add-on to peripheral suturas. Managing sinews was atruamatic to minimise mobilisation as possible during readying, and suturas were preferentially placed nearer to the palmar surface to least interfere with intratendinous circulation that enter dorsally. Appropriate direction of tendon sheath and block is concern of manus sawboness in covering with tendon hurts in digital sheath country. Suturing the sheath is controversial. Avoiding compaction of the repaired sinew by the tightly closed sheath is considered of primary importance in handling the injured sheath ( 16 ) . Closing of the synovial sheath is still controversial. Some writers mention that it is indicated, based on the fact that since intrinsic sinew vasculature is easy occluded by suturas and so, synovial nutrition may be required for mending ( 8 ) . In other Ã¢â¬Ës sentiment, it is no longer considered indispensable ( 17 ) . Based on the fact of that the synovial nutrition has a function in tendon healing and that it may be plenty for mending even without the demand of intrinsic sinew vasculature, the sheath was sutured in all instances, taking for heightening intrinsic sinew healing and therefore minimising adhesions ( 18 ) . Our direction protocol for the block was as prescribe by Tang, et Al, 1996 ( 19 ) , which is the saving of a sufficient figure of blocks is critical to tendon gesture. Loss of an single annular block ( including a portion of A2 block or the full A4 block ) when other blocks are integral does non ensue in loss of map. Therefore, loss of a individual block ( A1, A3, or A4 ) or a portion of the A2 block does non necessitate fix. In instance of sinew fixs within narrow A2 or A4 blocks, some sawboness advocate venting a portion of the A2 or full A4 block to let go of the compaction of the repaired sinews ( 20 ) . Postoperative sinew gesture exercising is popularly employed after primary sinew fix, but exact protocols for rehabilitation vary greatly among states or even among manus surgery centres in the same state. Protocols for inactive flexure ( active extension of the fingers with gum elastic set grip ) are still in usage in some manus units. However, over the last 5-10 old ages, there has been a tendency towards combined active-passive finger flexure without gum elastic set grip, because gum elastic set grip bounds full extension of the finger ; while extension loss is a frequent complication ( 21 ) . In Duran and Houser, 1975 protocol, a dorsal splint or dramatis personae holds the carpus in 20 grades of flexure and the finger in a relaxed unspecified place of protective flexure by agencies of a gum elastic set attached to a sutura through the fingernail, to maintain the sinew on slack. Two times a twenty-four hours, the patient performs six to eight repeats of two exercisings. Both exer cises push flexor sinews proximally and so draw them distally: inactive flexure and extension of the DIP articulation while the PIP and MP are held in flexure, and inactive flexure and extension of the PIP while the DIP and MP are held in flexure. Through intraoperative observations, it was observed that these exercisings imparted 3 to 5 millimeters of inactive semivowel to the sinew, and they considered this to be sufficient to forestall formation of restrictive adhesions. Strickland and Glogovac, 1980 introduced the modified Duran attack which is in usage by many healers today: a dorsal splint holds the carpus and MP articulations flexed, and the interphalangeal ( IP ) articulations are strapped in extension between exercising Sessionss. The original Duran exercisings are supplemented by composite inactive flexure and active extension every bit far as allowed by the splint. Both logic and clinical surveies tell us that including composite inactive flexure will bring forth greater inactive flexor sinew motion. Some of the best consequences with an early inactive mobilisation protocol are in patients who unwittingly or consciously flex their fingers actively. This makes great sense logically. Passive flexure efforts to force the sinew proximally, but the sinew is designed to draw, non to force. Edema is a normal portion of mending after fix, even if the sinew is cut flawlessly, with minimum hurt to next tissues, and is repaired efficiently and good. Any fix is bulkier than an uninjured sinew. Any associated hurt will bring forth extra hydrops. All of these factors produce opposition to tendon motion. Some have noted Ã¢â¬ buckling Ã¢â¬ of the sinew instead than gliding with inactive motion. Obviously, carefully controlled active flexure should bring forth greater sinew motion than does inactive flexure. These active mobilisation protocols are possible merely because of the development of surgical techniques. It is good established that the strength of the nucleus sutura is related to the figure of strands traversing the fix ) and that a strong peripheral sutura both improves gliding and additions suture strength ( 22 ) . In our survey, farther direction was based on the fact of that early mobilisation will heighten the intrinsic healing of the sinew, minimizes adhesions, stiffness, and therefore minimizes the restrictions of motion. And in the same clip, immobilisation helps extrinsic sinew healing and adhesion formation. So, we splinted the carpus in 20 grade of flexure and MPJ at 40 grade ( 23 ) , we planned for dynamic splinting of involved figures with early passive and active but controlled gestures to avoid possible jobs related to early motion such as rupture of the repaired sinew. Controlled active motion ( CAM ) after flexor sinew fix was advised by several writers since the last decennaries till now ( 24, 25, 26, 27, 28 ) . We found that the CAM protocol that was described by Elliott, 2002 ( 23 ) easy to be described to and to be applied even by the patient him/her ego. The protocol starts the CAM from the first postoperative twenty-four hours, every hr for 10 repeats active extension and f lexure of fingers while the manus is in the splinted place, and passively the DIPJ is so to the full flexed. In our application, we waited till postoperative hurting subsided during which the patient may be hospitalized as describe besides by Elliot, et Al, 1994 ( 29 ) . The usage of Postoperative curative ultrasound from the fifth twenty-four hours, was done for a limited figure of instances, taking of cut downing hurting during finger motion, cut downing hydrops, and heighten ripening of the collagen fibres and intrinsic sinew healing. That was based on the survey done by Gabriel and Dicky, 2007 ( 30 ) who used curative ultrasound on sinew Achilles. In decision, immediate active mobilisation following fixs of complete subdivisions of the flexor sinews is, at present, a challenge in manus surgery which faces two major faltering blocks.. On one manus, sawbones has to obtain a sufficiently solid fix to allow active finger flexure and, on the other manus, to find a sector of mobilisation which would let maximum jaunt of the fix site without extra hazard of early rupture ( 18 ) . The tensile strength and glide maps are greater in the postoperatively mobilized sinews, whereas adhesion formation is greater in immobilized sinews ( 11 ) . We found our protocol is a safe, simple, scientifically accepted protocol and gives an first-class functional consequences for a repaired sinew with no or at least minimum morbidity.
Monday, September 16, 2019
Toni MorrisonÃ¢â¬â¢s highly acclaimed debut work, The Bluest Eye, is one of unquestionable beauty and intricately woven prose. As a fictional writer, Morrison avails herself of her literary faculties, using her mastery of description in order to convey an unusually lucid picture to the reader. The five senses seem to envelop a great deal of description in the novel, most notably that of sight. As has been discovered by virtue of studying the brainÃ¢â¬â¢s neural and cognitive machinery, vision occupies large regions of the brain.Although in a more abstract sense, visionÃ¢â¬â¢s disproportionate influence on the narrative and the storyÃ¢â¬â¢s characters is greatly manifested in The Bluest Eye. One powerful way in which vision dictates many aspects of the novel is through the concept of aesthetic beauty. Throughout the novel, Morrison paints a detailed depiction of how African-Americans, especially young, amenable girls, are subject to the conventional indoctrination of beauty.So ciety has taught them to equate white with beautiful, and to go to considerable lengths to Ã¢â¬Å"whitenÃ¢â¬ themselves, such as in the case of women like Geraldine, who is described as sugar-brown in skin tone: Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦they never cover the entire mouth for fear of lips too thick, and they worry, worry, worry about the edges of their hairÃ¢â¬ (83). Geraldine even goes as far as to inculcate this physical selfloathing in her own son, Junior: Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦his hair was cut as close to his scalp as possible to avoid any suggestion of wool, the part was etched into his hair by the barberÃ¢â¬ (87).Any manifestations of stereotypical racial features, such as full lips and Ã¢â¬Å"wool-texturedÃ¢â¬ hair are carefully concealed in an effort to adhere to the white ideal of what is beautiful. In the town of Lorain, Ohio, subliminal and implicit messages emphasizing whiteness as superior are found everywhere, and seemingly impossible to ignore. The quintessential white baby do ll given to Claudia as a present, romanticism of Shirley Temple, the exaltation of the light-skinned Maureen, idealization of white female actresses in movies, and PaulineÃ¢â¬â¢s nurturing of the little white girl are a few examples of the ways in which hese hypnotic images invade the vulnerable consciousnessÃ¢â¬â¢ of the African-American women and young girls in the story. Adult women, having matured into consummate self-loathers, detesting the bodies in which they were born, express their hatred by taking it out on their own children: Mrs. Breedlove adopts the conviction that her daughter is ugly, and Geraldine curses PecolaÃ¢â¬â¢s blackness. The idea that ugliness is in fact a state of mind is presented early on in the book when illustrating the Breedlove family: Ã¢â¬Å"Mrs. Breedlove, Sammy Breedlove, and Pecola BreedloveÃ¢â¬âwore their uglinessÃ¢â¬ (38).This sentence provides an implication that the BreedloveÃ¢â¬â¢s ugliness was a result of deliberate choice. The narrator then continues on, observing, Ã¢â¬Å"You looked at them and wondered why they were so ugly; you looked closely and could not find the sourceÃ¢â¬ (39). In saying this, one can elicit that the members of the Breedlove family are not inherently ugly, rather they are driven to believe that they are and that they deserve to be, convincing those that look upon them that they are ugly. The BreedloveÃ¢â¬â¢s sense of physical insecurity emanates outwardly, and causes others to see them in the way they want to be seen.For one reason or another, being viewed with contempt for their appearance benefits them in some way. For Mrs. Breedlove, her ugliness is used for purposes of Ã¢â¬Å"martyrdom,Ã¢â¬ for Sammy, it is used to inflict Ã¢â¬Å"pain,Ã¢â¬ and for Pecola, it is used as a Ã¢â¬Å"maskÃ¢â¬ to hide behind. In the vein of vision, a recurring motif that is discernable in The Bluest Eye is seeing versus being seen. Many characters in the novel, most frequently, Pecola, ex press feelings of being disregarded and invisible when interacting or in the vicinity of white people.In the passage about the BreedloveÃ¢â¬â¢s living situation, they are described as living in Ã¢â¬Å"anonymousÃ¢â¬ misery. The fact that they paradoxically live in anonymity despite being exposed to passersby on the street, introduces this prevailing theme. Conceivably one of the most memorable scenes that addresses this subject is when Mrs. Breedlove recounts giving birth. In referring to the doctors, she says, Ã¢â¬Å"They never said nothing to me. Only one looked at me. Looked at my face, I mean. I looked right back at him. He dropped his eyes and turned red. He knowed, I reckon, that maybe I werenÃ¢â¬â¢t no horse foalingÃ¢â¬ (125).By refusing to make eye contact with her and acknowledge her, the doctors, in a way, dehumanize her. She sees them, but they do not see her. They treat her as though she is an animal, rather than a sentient human being, and although uneducated, Mrs. Breedlove is perceptive enough to notice this. She believes that if they were to lock eyes with her, they would realize something unpleasant: that she is no different from the white patients. With regard to invisibility, the early scene with Pecola in the candy shop also seems to be particularly telling.In speaking of Mr. Yacobowski, it says, Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦he senses that he need not waste the effort of a glance. He does not see her, because for him there is nothing to see. How can a fifty-two-year-old white immigrant store-keeperÃ¢â¬ ¦ see a little black girl? (48). What can be gathered from this is that the man, to some degree, has made a conscious choice not to look at her, not because he is physically incapable of doing so, but because he considers someone of her skin color insignificant, and not worth the energy necessary for acknowledgment.This theme underscores the difference between how one sees and how one is seen, also differentiates between superficial sight and real insight. PecolaÃ¢â¬â¢s desire for blue eyes is undoubtedly essential to examine when considering the power and impact of vision in the novel. Pecola is consumed with the thought of having blue eyes because she believes that they would be the simple panacea for everything that is unpleasant in her life. She is convinced that they will alter the way she is seen by others, and therefore the way that she sees the world around her.To Pecola, blue eyes and happiness, are inextricably linked. In a way, too, they represent her own blindness, since she attains them at the expense of her sanity. In addition, she has the understanding that if she had Ã¢â¬Å"beautifulÃ¢â¬ eyes, people would not think it right to do ugly things in front of her or to her: Ã¢â¬Å"Maybe theyÃ¢â¬â¢d say, Ã¢â¬ËWhy, look at pretty-eyed Pecola. We mustnÃ¢â¬â¢t do bad things in front of those pretty eyesÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬ (46). She believes that the cruelty she is exposed to is somehow intertwined with how she is seen.Her insight is confirmed when Maureen steps in while being teased by the boys at school. Upon arrival, it seems that MaureenÃ¢â¬â¢s beautiful gaze causes the boys not to want to act badly. One character in The Bluest Eye that stands out against the rest as being one of the few individuals who can see clearly, and through an unadulterated lens is Claudia. Her clarity of vision is in part due to the fact that it is not marred by pain, like PecolaÃ¢â¬â¢s is. In the beginning of her narrative, she talks about how she has not yet reached the stage in adolescence where love turns to self-hatred.She is different from others girls her age because she does not strive to emulate them, at the loss of her well-being. When she receives the doll, she describes her impulse to dismember it: Ã¢â¬Å"I had only one desire: to dismember it. To see what it was made, to discover the dearness, to find the beauty, the desirability that had escaped me, but apparently only meÃ¢â¬ (20). In her childlike naiveness, she does not realize that the beauty everyone praises the dolls for does not come from within, but instead, is on the surface. She wants to take apart the doll in the hopes that she will unearth the inner secret to its beauty.At least at this point, she is unaware of what society has narrow-mindedly deemed beautiful. Near the end of the story, when she and her sister are talking about PecolaÃ¢â¬â¢s pregnancy, she imagines the unborn baby as beautiful in its blackness, indicating that she does not embody the impressionable mindset typical of other women in the book. The Bluest Eye is one of the most profound examples in modern literature that attests to the ability of vision in impacting the way in which people perceive the world and are perceived by others.The novel repeatedly brings to attention the malleability of human sight, and its vulnerability to distortion through the lens of hatred, love, bigotry, and racism. Even in the title of MorrisonÃ¢â¬â¢s wor k, one can learn a substantial amount about the intrinsic role vision plays in the story. The word Ã¢â¬ËeyeÃ¢â¬â¢ in the title is singular rather than plural, suggesting the negative implications on the individual by societyÃ¢â¬â¢s white tunnel vision in relation to concepts of beauty and approval. In addition, the double meaning of Ã¢â¬ËeyeÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËIÃ¢â¬â¢ strongly emphasizes the significance of vision in the grand scheme of the novel.
Sunday, September 15, 2019
In recent times, France has experienced monumental events that foreshadow quite a different future for France, and the beginning of a new revolutionary regime. Disorder and theft have unfortunately accompanied violent events and in response: the formation of the National Guard. The Guard is composed of professional soldiers, foreign mercenaries, merchant and shopkeepersÃ¢â¬â¢ sons, and sons of the most comfortable master workers and journeymen, and other Ã¢â¬Å"activeÃ¢â¬ tax paying citizens of the middle class. With such an important role as to maintain order and law in France and to protect the Constitution, it is presumed that the Commander General of this Guard must be one whom is well versed in commanding a large force. I, Marquis de Lafayette, have this experience. Having been granted the position of Major General and forming close relations with General George Washington in the American Revolution, I performed to the best of my ability on the terms of no pay and as a volunteer. I received a formal recognition from the United States Congress for my services in the Rhode Island expedition, have gained much respect for my tactics in battle, and ensured the Revolution was all but won with my success in the Battle of Yorktown. As a key component in the success of the American Revolution and as a General in the French Army, I ask of you all to now grant me the position of Commander General of the National Guard of Paris. Furthermore, I ask for your support of an important piece of legislature, The Declaration of Rights of Man and of the Citizen. This document sets forth Ã¢â¬Å"in a solemn declaration the natural, unalienable, and sacred rights of man, in order that this declaration, being constantly before all the members of the Social body, shall remind [you] continually of [your] rights and duties; in order that the acts of the legislative power, as well as those of the executive power, may be compared at any moment with the objects and purposes of all political institutions and may thus be more respected, and, lastly, in order that the grievances of the citizens, based hereafter upon simple and incontestable principles, shall tend to the maintenance of the constitution and redound to the happiness of all,Ã¢â¬ (Declaration of Rights of Man and of the Citizen). Do not let France devolve into anarchy, and let us continue to exercise our universal and natural rights for the benefit of and all and the future of France!
Saturday, September 14, 2019
Superman was breaking down a door. It's important to remember this because he talks about how he refused to act stupid and how he is breaking down his own door In the sense that he Is teaching others how to read and write and breaking stereotypes. Indians aren't supposed to be able to read and write, but now he Is teaching other Indians to do these things because he didn't conform. 2) The verb that Is repeated was read. This emphasizes his passion for reading and his dedication to it.He is trying to say that his coming to literacy was a hardship. It took perseverance to achieve it and now he is trying to help others to achieve that same goal. 3) The statement made by Frederick Douglas has the complete opposite meaning to what Alexia feels. I don't think Alexia envied his classmates because if he did envy them, why did he go his own way when others ridiculed him? Alexis difficulties demonstrated not conforming to the stereotype he was given while his classmates worried about upholding that stereotype. ) She waited and waited for her parent's to tell her the news. They were moving away from everything she knewÃ¢â¬ ¦ Again. It pained her to know that she had to say goodbye. Writing in 3rd person decreases the meaning of the moment. It creates a distance between my emotions and me. Graduation 1) She hopes to one day be able to do what her heart desires, not Just what society believes she should do. The speaker knew the Negro race to be athletes and farmers. She aspired to be more than that. 2) It shows how life was back then for African-American citizens.It appeals to the reader's emotions because you see how hard the Negroes work for their education just for somebody to tell them that they will just be the next big athlete or farmer. 3) Angelo viewed poetry as a way to sustain culture and empathic with the author's emotions. AnzaÃ'Ëa viewed poetry as a right and a way to express one's self. She was always told to tame her tongue and poetry was a way that she cou ld freely express herself. 4) When I first made cheerleaders In high school, I expected It to be easy. It wasn't.It was a lot of hard work, but once I adjusted to the reality of it, I loved every minute of it My expectations for the next year were definitely modified to fit what actually happens. Turkeys In the Kitchen ) He talks about how the women work in the kitchen while the men watch sports. Also he addresses how men wont go Into the kitchen unless they need a beer or something to snack on. He adds that the only men who know how to cook have hyphenated last names and stay at home all day while his wife works, which isn't always the case. 2) HIS use of humor helps make a serious subject lighthearted.It helps people better relate to these situations about men and women. He confirms the stereotypes of men and women. 3) Parry's humor is lighthearted and funny, while Steadier's humor is more sarcastic. They are similar in the sense that both styles of humor make reading these storie s easier on the audience. They differ in that one is lighthearted and playful, while one is more serious. 4) Holidays in my family are very similar to Parry's. My dad and the other men sit around and talk and drink beer. The women are usually in the kitchen cooking the meals or watching the younger kids play.Why Don't We Complain? 1) His three examples were when the temperature on a train is 85 degrees, when the movie screen is out of focus, and when he was in a ski shop and one of the employees wasn't working. ) He states that each year, Americans voice their opinions less and less because they feel that it is the place of the government to decide what is best for this country. He uses the example of when Premier Khrushchev came to American and only a few people made posters that challenged his tyranny. 3) The behaviors in Buckley essay are when people are too afraid to stand up for themselves.The behaviors in Coacher's essay are when people feel empathy for another human who is su ffering. The difference that can be seen between these 2 essays are that one has to do with why people give into what they ear or what they feel and the other deals with why people are afraid of standing up for what they want. 4) I care about the equal treatment of everyone, no matter who they are. I demonstrate my beliefs by treating everyone with love and compassion. I act as if everyone is my friend. I treat others the way I want to be treated. Myth of Latin Woman 1) They all show people treating Coffer like her cultures stereotype.They treat her as if she was uneducated, unprofessional, and easy. In these incidents, no one stopped and thought to talk to her or give her the respect any human deserves. Instead, they treated her like an idiot or like she didn't belong. 2) She states that the Latinist that are recognized in our culture are the ones who wear scandalous clothing with too much make up and Jewelry, those who are uneducated and don't speak much English, those who are unp rofessional, and those who belong in the kitchen or as maids. She claims that classifications about certain races or cultures aren't always right.People Judge other cultures based off what the media portrays them as. 3) Over the course of my life, Eve had instances of people treating me like I am uneducated because of the stereotype that people label blondes and cheerleaders as. It's very degrading when people treat me that way. I take a lot of pride in my schoolwork and grades. I cheer because I love the sport, not because of the social status I receive. 4) When I see a girl wearing revealing clothing, I usually assume she's doing it for the attention and to be slut. I realize this isn't always the case.I believe we can live without these snap Judgments. You don't know the other person's situation therefore you can't Judge them. People don't always act like their stereotype. On Morality 1) She feels that when people claim that there is a moral imperative to do something that is whe n they will take action to get what they deem as Ã¢â¬Å"rightÃ¢â¬ done. 2) She never defines what morality is. She explains that morality is what we feel right and wrong are and that those beliefs are formed in our childhood. She approaches it this way to help people understand that morals will vary Witt every person.No person is raised the same way as another. 3) As humans we are always forced to make choices. Eve been in situations where I had to choose between right and wrong. It isn't always the easiest decision, but because of how I was raised, I know to make the right decision. My mom always taught me to put others before myself. That is what I view as right. 4) The conscience can be insidious. When people are caught up in a moment, their old may be tempting them to make the wrong choice. For example, serial killers think in a different way than other people do.What they are doing may be Ã¢â¬Å"rightÃ¢â¬ to them because of what they grew up around. Learning to Read 1) He learned to read from the boys around his neighborhood and from his mistress when she was kind to him. He read the newspapers when he could. He learned to write from watching the men at the shipyard label what the boards were going to. He also learned from his little Master's copybook and the boys in the neighborhood. 2) His mistress undergoes a learning experience from her husband on how to treat slaves. She used to be kind and tender -hearted. She used to treat Douglas how any human being should be treated.Her husband thought that was wrong and she then became cruel Just like him. She stopped teaching Douglas how to read as well. 3) The way Douglas was treated and why he wasn't educated was ere similar to that of how Epsilons were treated in Brave New World. Douglas wasn't deprived of oxygen and didn't have alcohol poured into his test tube, but he was deprived of an education out of fear that he may revolt, Just like the Epsilons. If both slaves and the Epsilons knew that they we re being mistreated, they would revolt. 4) I Just recently found out that I'm allergic to seafood.It is pleasurable and painful because seafood is my favorite food and I can never at it again, but it's also very unhealthy. So on the downside I can't eat it, but on the bright side, I'm avoiding unhealthy food. Serving in Florida 1) She has to pay rent and buy food for herself. 2) She tells us about each of their living conditions and the latest drama going on in the hotel and their lives. She tells us when people are planning on quitting and some who want to switch Jobs. Also, there was a drug issue going on with the hotel and she told us whom all the employees thought it was. ) People can be homeless or near foreclosure even if they have a Job. Some people work at minimum wage or work double Jobs Just to try and pay rent, but sometimes that isn't enough. 4) Eve never worked for minimum wage, but most of my friends do. I can imagine how hard it must be to slave away for hours to only make enough to Just get by. The Allegory of the Cave 1) The cave represents how we see or interpret our reality or the reality around us. The shadows in the story represent an interpretation of reality that people try to interpret or explain without really knowing what it meaner.The light represents the truth of all things. The puppeteers represent the people of higher rank in society and how they try to alter other people's realities. 2) The comparisons help to show the importance of non-worldly things such as knowledge, wisdom, and common sense. He compares wisdom and virtue to silver and gold because they nave the same importance. Without silver or gold, we wouldn't be able to trade or purchase items Just like how without virtue and knowledge we wouldn't know anything about the world we live in. 3) The allegory made in Plat's essay is seen today in many countries all over the world.Most governments use their authority to benefit themselves; they use it for personal gain. For exa mple, some governments ay tax the people more to sponsor a personal fund. Also, in North Korea, the government tries to alter the citizens' perceptions of the world like the puppeteers in Plat's story. ) Some people involved in politics may have a personal connection to a public affair. Cancer fundraisers, charities, marathons supporting a good cause, etc. Are all great examples of public affairs that politicians want to get involved in purely because they are for a good cause.Just Be Average 1) Brother Dill, who taught him to be tough. Mr.. Metropolis, who had them read Caesar and half think. Mr.. Monnet took no responsibility and taught Rose to do the same thing. Brother Clint was the one who caught the error and placed him in College Prep, which led to Rose getting a decent education. Mr.. McFarland pushed him to be the scholar he wanted to be. McFarland led to Rose's love of language and books and recommended that he go to college. 2) He talks about the boundaries that schools p lace on kids who learn at a slower level. These boundaries serve as a guide as to who goes where in society.Society deems the Vocational Education students as Ã¢â¬Å"inadequateÃ¢â¬ in the work field, so they are given mediocre Jobs. That boundary also teaches those kids that they are nothing more than the Ã¢â¬Å"Common LeoÃ¢â¬ and that they shouldn't try because they are always going to be behind. 3) Both f the classifications made in Angelinos essay and in Rose's essay represent the hardships that some people have to overcome in order to succeed. The African- Americans were always told they would amount to nothing more than athletes Just as the kids in Vocational Education were told and viewed themselves as below average and mediocre. ) I have definitely been pushed past what I thought was my limit. My teachers have helped and guided me through my schooling experience to be the best possible student I can be. In our education system, students are rewarded with DOD grades, hon or medals/certificates, and recognition from teachers or colleges. Traditional motivation has always worked for me because I take a lot of pride in my schoolwork and I know what I am capable of. A system that might encourage all students to do their best would be on without boundaries.If a child doesn't feel restricted from his/her potential, then they will aspire to be better instead of Just quitting. A Plague of Tics 1) He kissed news papers, licked a mushroom decoration, licked light switches and door knobs, Jabbed butter knifes into an electrical outlet, smashed his shoes to his forehead, rocked, listened to music and tried to interpret its meaning, touch the front or with his elbows, count things, Jerk his head, roll his eyes back, put his nose to the windshield, he'd straighten objects into lines or rows, and he would tighten lids and lights.These are tics because he found an uncontrollable urge to perform these tasks and couldn't move on with his day until everything was done . 2) Five examples would be when he imagined bad things happening to his roommate so he could rock, him questioning why his teacher would want to lick his light switches when she doesn't use hers, when en told his roommate that his head snaking was because to a moor, when he goes over the list of demands his brain makes him do, and when he questions why he can't press his nose to the windshield of the car.These examples act as a relief from the seriousness of the story. It makes it more enjoyable to read rather than somber. Also, him questioning why he can't do certain things acts as a contrast to how he thinks to that of how a normal person thinks. 3) They act similarly to those situations. Both authors are so caught up in what others think about them, that they can't find time to think for themselves and decide who it is they ant to be. They both try to alter the way people about them by making up excuses or by trying to change their look. ) One time when I was little, I Jumped of f the bed after my mom told me not to and I got a huge gash in my shin from hitting the dresser. I didn't want to tell my mom because I was so afraid that she was going to yell at me. I tried to play it off and hide the cut, but the guilt of not telling her consumed my every thought. I finally broke down and told her, but in that moment I wished that I could've stopped thinking about it and Just have let it go. Some people sis that they could turn their mind off so that they won't continue harmful habits or so they can hide the truth from others.It's a defense mechanism our mind has to help us cope with the reality of the situation. The Death of the Moth 1) As the moth takes flight, everything outside seems to come to life. The birds are flying, the horses are roaming, the farmers are out tilling the land, and everything is alive. As the moth dies everything outside ceases to commence, almost as if the outside world has sensed death. 2) The size off creature does not matter. Life an d death impacts every organism eventually. It Just goes to show that the same struggles that humans go through other creatures do too.The way that the moth flies from corner to corner represents the way humans go through life. We create a sort of pattern that we rely on to keep us going. When we get older and start to become more immobile, death starts to take its toll on us. We can try and fight it, but it comes to get all of us in the end. She could have used any living thing to write this essay or lust simply explain the common patterns that occur in everyday life. 3) I had a friend pass away freshman year at the age of 13.This story reminds me of her in the sense that death comes at the most unexpected moments like it did for the moth. She was very happy and acted as if everything was normal. She went through her day as she normally did in the same pattern: school, cheer, bed. Then all of a sudden she was gone, Just like the moth. 4) I pass a lot of road kill on my way to school in the morning and it makes me think about how truly short life is. It can Just be taken away from you in an instant. Just because someone or something seems to be doing fine and going about its normal patter doesn't mean that it's invincible.